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Book - One author
In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Gimenez (2007) reiterates that a paragraph contains information about a single idea. Gimenez (2007, p. 14) explains that ‘paragraphing records information in blocks or paragraphs which contain one principal idea’.
A paragraph contains information about a single idea (Gimenez 2007).

‘Paragraphing records information in blocks or paragraphs which contain one principal idea’ (Gimenez 2007, p. 14).

Include page number or page range (as relevant) and single quotation marks.

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, Publisher Name, City of publication.

Gimenez, J 2007, Writing for nursing and midwifery students, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Book - Organisation as author
In-text reference

When the author is an organisation, such as a government department or a company, cite the name of the organisation as the author name.

If citing the organisation in text only once, write the full name both in text and in the reference list. No acronym is used.

If citing the organisation more than once, write both full name and acronym for the first citation, for example the World Health Organisation (WHO), and then use only the acronym for subsequent citations. If you refer to the organisation more than once in the body of a report, write both full name and acronym in the executive summary or abstract (if relevant) and both full name and acronym again the first time in the body.

If organisation cited only once:

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

According to the Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee (2005), there has been intense debate about personal liability. The Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee (2005, p. 1) draws attention to concerns ‘raised about derivative liability on company officers’.
Personal liability is a controversial topic (The Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee 2005). ‘Concerns have been raised about derivative liability on company officers’ (The Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee 2005, p. 1).
If organisation cited more than once: first citation

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

The Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee (CAMAC 2005) reports that there has been serious debate about personal liability.

The Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee (CAMAC 2005, p. 1) refers to concerns ‘raised about derivative liability on company officers’.

Personal liability is a controversial topic (Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee [CAMAC] 2005).

‘Concerns have been raised about derivative liability on company officers’ (Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee [CAMAC] 2005, p. 1).

When using brackets within brackets, use square brackets inside round brackets.

If organisation cited more than once: subsequent citations

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

According to the CAMAC (2005), there has been debate about personal liability.

According to CAMAC (2005, p. 1), there have been concerns ‘raised about derivative liability on company officers’.

Personal liability is a controversial topic (CAMAC 2005).

‘Concerns have been raised about derivative liability on company officers’ (CAMAC 2005, p. 1).

Reference list

Organisation Name Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, edition (when not the first), Publisher Name, City of publication.

If organisation cited only once in text

Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee 2005, Personal liability for corporate fault: discussion paper, Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee, Sydney.

If organisation cited more than once in text

Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee (CAMAC) 2005, Personal liability for corporate fault: discussion paper, CAMAC, Sydney.

If the publisher of a print book is the same as the author, use the acronym for the publisher.

Book - Two or three authors
In-text reference

Retain the order of authors given by the source.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

According to Peck and Coyle (2005), punctuation must follow set rules rather than be invented. According to Peck and Coyle (2005, p. 13), ‘an author must comply with punctuation rules’.

As Rao, Chanock and Krishnan (2007) point out, arguments should all support the thesis of an essay.

Rao, Chanock and Krishnan (2007, p. 32) assert that ‘all your arguments lead’ to your thesis.

Use and before the last author when authors are part of a sentence.  

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Punctuation has to follow set rules rather than be invented (Peck & Coyle 2005).

‘An author must comply with punctuation rules’ (Peck & Coyle 2005, p. 13).

Arguments in an essay support the thesis (Rao, Chanock & Krishnan 2007).

An essay must have a thesis ‘towards which all your arguments lead’ (Rao, Chanock & Krishnan 2007, p. 32).

Use & before the last author when authors are in brackets.  

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s, Surname, Initial/s & Surname, Initial/s Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, edition (when not the first), Publisher Name, City of publication.

Use & before the last author
Peck, J & Coyle, M 2005, Write it right: a handbook for students, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Rao, V, Chanock, K & Krishnan, L 2007, A visual guide to essay writing: how to develop and communicate academic argument, Association for Academic Language and Learning, Sydney.

Book - Four or more authors
In-text reference

For four or more authors: in text, cite only the first author surname followed by et al. (full stop after ‘al.’ but not after ‘et’). In Latin, et alia means ‘and others’. In the reference list cite all authors. Retain the order of authors given by the source.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

van Krieken et al. (2010) contend that a new perspective on crime is required. According to van Krieken et al. (2000, p. 511) crime is defined as ‘behaviour which is proscribed and punishable by law’.
A new perspective on crime is required (van Krieken et al. 2010). Crime is defined as ‘behaviour which is proscribed and punishable by law’ (van Krieken et al. 2000, p. 511).

Retain lower case letter for surname if given that way in the source. Note that et al. is plural, so the verb should agree (‘contend’ not ‘contends’).  

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s, Surname, Initial/s, Surname, Initial/s & Surname, Initial/s Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, edition (when not the first), Publisher Name, City of publication.

Use & before the last author.

van Krieken, R, Habibas, D, Smith, P, Hutchins, B, Haralambos, M & Holborn, M 2010, Sociology: themes and perspectives, 4th edn, Pearson Longman, Frenchs Forest.

Retain lower case letter for surname if given that way in the source.

Book - Author unknown
In-text reference

If the author of a book is not given, the title of the book is cited in italics in place of the author, both in text and in the reference list.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

In The bride stripped bare (2003) dialogue is minimal.

The narrator in The bride stripped bare (2003, p. 61) speaks of a ‘desire to crash catastrophe into my world’.

Dialogue is minimal (The bride stripped bare 2003). The narrator speaks of a ‘desire to crash catastrophe into my world’ (The bride stripped bare 2003, p. 61).
Reference list

Insert in alphabetical order in the reference list disregarding any article (‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’) beginning the title.

Book Title Year, edition (when not the first), Publisher Name, City of publication.

The bride stripped bare 2003, Fourth Estate, London.

Book - Later edition
In-text reference

Do not confuse edition (a book published again with substantial updates) with an edited book (a book containing chapters or material collated by an editor who is not the author of all the material - see below).

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Godfrey et al. (2010) categorise the major theories in accounting. Godfrey et al. (2010, p. 30) indicate that a major criticism of statistical research is the way it ‘tends to lump everything together’.

Differences between normative and positive theories of accounting are identified (Godfrey et al. 2010).

A criticism advanced is that large-scale statistical research ‘tends to lump everything together’ (Godfrey et al. 2010, p. 30).

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, edition (when not the first), Publisher Name, City of publication.

Edition number after the title. Turn off superscript.

Godfrey, J, Hodgson, A, Tarca, A, Hamilton, J & Holmes, S 2010, Accounting theory, 7th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton.

Book - Chapter in an edited book
In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Sniehotta and Aunger (2010) state psychological stages vary. Sniehotta and Aunger (2010, p. 136) contend that ‘tailored interventions’ are superior to ‘one-size-fits-all’ mediations.

There are defined stages which are internally similar but psychologically different (Sniehotta & Aunger 2010).

‘Traditional social cognition models specify a small set of psychological variables’ (Sniehotta & Aunger 2010, p. 136).

Reference list

Use in before editor initials before editor surname (reverse usual order). Use pp. for page range. Insert full stop after ‘ed.’ but not after ‘eds’.

Chapter Author Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Chapter title in minimal capitalisation and single quotation marks’, in Initial/s Surname (ed. or eds in brackets), Book title in italics and minimal capitalisation, Publisher Name, City of Publication, Page numbers of chapter.

Sniehotta FF & Aunger R 2010, ‘Stage models of behaviour change’, in D French, K Vedhara, A Kaptein, & J Weinman (eds), Health psychology, British Psychological Society, Blackwell, Chichester, pp. 135-46.

Book - Edited book

It is rare to cite an edited book. It is more common to cite a chapter in an edited book.

Do not confuse edited book (a book containing chapters or material collated by an editor who did not write all of the material) with edition (a book published again with substantial updates). An edited book may also be a later edition. Insert full stop after ‘ed.’ but not after ‘eds’.

Book - Edited book with a Single Editor

Referencing an edited book can be quite complicated. When referencing an edited book, it is important to consider whose words you are citing.

Citing an author whose work is being edited

If the original author's role is of primary importance, cite the author's name and acknowledge the editor in the reference list.

In-text reference

Thomas Paine (2004, p. 60) observes that 'the nearer any government approaches to a republic the less business there is for a king'.

Reference list

Paine, T 2004, Common sense, ed. E Larkin, Broadview, Toronto.

Citing an introduction written by the editor(s)

Edited books sometimes feature an introduction written by the editor.

If you reference this type of introduction, cite the editor's name and the year in your in-text reference.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

A study by Larkin (ed. 2004) collates and evaluates writing by Thomas Paine. Larkin (ed. 2004, p. 3) reports that Paine ‘began a revolution in thinking’.
Writing by Thomas Paine triggered controversy (Larkin ed. 2004).

Paine ‘began a revolution in thinking’ (Larkin ed. 2004, p. 3).

Reference list

Editor Author Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Introduction’, in Initial/s Surname (ed. or eds in brackets), Book title in italics and minimal capitalisation, Publisher Name, City of Publication, Page numbers of introduction.

Larkin, E 2004, 'Introduction', in E Larkin (ed.), Common sense: Thomas Paine, Broadview Editions, Toronto, pp. 7-34.

Book - Edited book with Multiple Editors
In-text reference

Do not confuse edited book (a book containing chapters or material collated by an editor who did not write all of the material) with edition (a book published again with substantial updates - see above). An edited book may also be a later edition. Full stop after ‘ed.’ but not after ‘eds’.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Strangio and Costar (eds 2006) state that the first Labor government in Victoria was elected in 1952. Strangio and Costar (eds 2006, p. 7) emphasise that ‘state records are dispersed’.

The first state Labor government in Victoria was elected in 1952 (Strangio & Costar eds 2006).

The historical account is limited as ‘state records are dispersed’ (Strangio & Costar eds 2006, p. 7).

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s (ed. or eds in brackets) Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, edition (when not the first), Publisher Name, City of publication.

Strangio, P & Costar, B (eds) 2006, The Victorian premiers 1856-2006, Federation Press, Sydney.

Book - Part of series
In-text reference

Also see Edited Book.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Sternad (ed. 2009) states that advances have been patchy. Sternad (ed. 2009, p. 45) states that progress ‘is limited’.
Swales and Feak (2004) contend that graduate students need to develop writing skills at a new level.

There is a need to ‘assist graduate students build advanced writing skills’ (Swales & Feak 2004, p. 4).

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s (ed. or eds in brackets if edited) Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, Series title in no italics and minimal capitalisation, edition (when not the first), volume number (if relevant), Publisher Name, City of publication.

Sternad, D (ed.) 2009, Progress in motor control: a multidisciplinary perspective, Advances in experimental medicine and biology, vol. 629, Springer, New York.

Swales, JM & Feak, CB 2004, Academic writing for graduate students: essential tasks and skills, Michigan series in English for academic and professional purposes, 2nd edn, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Book - Translation or revision
In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

González Sánchez (2011) traces the impact of books on new world colonisers. As González Sánchez (2011, p. 91) argues, this monopoly ‘reinforced the supposed homogeneity’.
Perceptions play a greater role in later methodologies (González Sánchez 2011).

Prohibition increased ‘the temptation and enjoyment of such accursed books’ (González Sánchez 2011, p. 76).

Reference list

Translator and reviser initials before surname (reverse usual order).

Surname, Initial/s (ed. or eds in brackets if edited) Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, edition (when not the first), translator Initial/s Surname, reviser Initial/s Surname, Publisher Name, City of publication.

González Sánchez, CA 2011, New world literacy: writing and culture across the Atlantic, 1500-1700, trans. T Platt, rev. B Aram, Bucknell University Press, Lewisberg.

Retain surnames as given in source, including symbols (go to Insert tab, symbols). 

Book - Scholarly edition of a previously published book
In-text reference

Edited or with an introduction by a scholar. If you wish to state the date of publication of the original, do so as part of a sentence (not part of the referencing).

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Hans Christian Andersen’s story (Wullschlager ed. 2004), originally published in 1835, is gothic in tone. Anderson’s (Wullschlager ed. 2004, p. 37) character blusters, ‘Tell me right now what you want [the tinderbox] for’.
Andersen’s later stories employ more complex language (Wullschlager ed. 2004).

‘Tell me right now what you want [the tinderbox] for’ (Wullschlager ed. 2004, p. 37).

If necessary for clarification, replace text in quote with text in square brackets.  

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s (ed. or eds in brackets) Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, edition (when not the first), translator Initial/s Surname (if relevant), Publisher Name, City of publication

Wullschlager, J (ed.) 2004, Hans Christian Andersen fairy tales, trans. T Nunnally, Penguin Books, London.

Book - Electronic book
In-text reference

Publication information is usually available from the Library database or online store.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Carroll (2011) produces a mix of fantasy and gothic horror in his story. For Plowden (2002, p. 103), the crucial feature is ‘a structured approach’.
Alice in Wonderland contains elements of both fantasy and gothic horror (Carroll 2011).

‘Do bats eat cats?’ (Carroll 2011, para. 9).

Book titles cited in italics in text; Place Name (e.g. Wonderland) capitalised.

For quotes: use page numbers if available; if not, use chapter (ch. 2), paragraph (para. 4) or section (s. 5) number as relevant. Space between abbreviation and number.

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s (ed. or eds in brackets if edited) Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, ebook, edition (when not the first), translator Initial/s Surname (if relevant), Online Publisher Name, City of publication.

Carroll, L 2011, Alice in Wonderland, ebook, Bookbyte Digital, Salem, viewed 21 November 2013, https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/alices-adventures-in-wonderland/ id510986661?mt=11

Plowden, P 2002, Advocacy and human rights act, ebook, Routledge-Cavendish, Abingdon, viewed 2 February 2015, http://www.USC.eblib.com.au/EBLWeb/patron/?target=patron &extendedid=P_220047_0&userid=^u

Book - Chapter in an electronic book
In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Guerra (2009) points out that a single karyotype formula accounts for most accessions. Guerra (2009, p. 52) refers to the intense apomictic reproduction by nucellar embryony’.

A single karyotype formula accounts for most accessions (Guerra 2009).

Citrus demonstrates intense apomictic reproduction by nucellar embryony’ (Guerra 2009, p. 52).
Reference list

Chapter Author Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Chapter title in minimal capitalisation, no italics and single quotation marks’, in Initial/s Surname (ed. or eds in brackets if edited), Book title in italics and minimal capitalisation, ebook, Publisher Name, City of Publication, Page numbers of chapter, viewed day month year, URL.

Guerra, M 2009, 'Chromosomal variability and the origin of Citrus species', in CL Mahoney & DA Springer (eds), Genetic diversity, ebook, Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp. 51-64, viewed 15 November 2016, http://ezproxy.usc.edu.au:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/ login.aspx? direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=311092&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_51

Conference papers and conference proceedings Published proceedings
In-text reference

Published ‘proceedings’ refers to the edited collection of peer-reviewed papers which were presented at a conference, seminar or meeting.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Kikkinn and Hotham (2005) defend collaboration which allows synthesis of discipline perspectives. Kikkinn and Hotham (2005, p. 99) state collaboration ‘offers opportunities for reciprocal exchange’.
Collaboration allows synthesis of discipline perspectives (Kikkinn & Hotham 2005). Collaboration ‘offers opportunities for reciprocal exchange’ (Kikkinn & Hotham 2005, p. 99).
Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Paper title in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’, Conference Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, Conference Host in maximal capitalisation, Conference city, Country if given, Conference date/s if available, page/s if available.

Kikkinn, B & Hotham, L 2005, ‘Improving oral communication in pharmacy education through interdisciplinary research’, Refereed Proceedings of the Language and Academic Skills in Higher Education Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, pp. 99-108.

Unpublished paper presented at a conference

Unpublished material includes unpublished papers presented at conferences, seminars and meetings.

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Title in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’, paper presented at Conference title, Conference Host if available, City, Country, Conference date/s if available, viewed day month year and URL (if relevant).

Asano, T 2001, 'Water from (waste) water - the dependable water resource', paper presented at Stockholm Water Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, 12-18 August, viewed 25 August 2009, http://www.deadlydeceit.com/water/LaureateLectureFinalUSreclaimed.pdf

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