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Vancouver Quick Guide (PDF 291KB)

Referencing guidelines

General information

Citing Medicine, 2nd edition The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers

Citing Medicine provides assistance to authors in compiling lists of references for their publications, to editors in revising such lists, to publishers in setting reference standards for their authors and editors, and to librarians and others in formatting bibliographic citations.

Vancouver- Official ICMJE "Uniform Requirements" for referencing

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Sample References

Vancouver referencing guidelines:

  • Allocate a superscript numeral to each source when it is used for the first time. Numbers in round brackets can also be used.
  • If the source is referred to again, the same numeral is used.
  • If more than one source is to be cited at the same place, the two appropriate numerals, separated by a comma, are used.
    Examples: In several studies … final word.1, 5 OR Several studies agree with Shaw’s (26) findings … final word. (9,11)
  • If sources are consecutive, use a hyphen, for example 1-2 or 7,9-11
  • Use et al for three to six authors when the work is cited within the sentence, and for subsequent mentions of the same work.
    For example: Results found by O’Brien et al2 show … OR The study by Nicklason et al (3) …
    Examples of how to include page numbers: Jones (10 pp23-27) state that… OR Patients showed no sign of diabetes.12 (p219)
Basic citation elements for a journal and book

Journal: Author surname Author initial(s) no spacing. Title of article. Abbreviated journal title. Year; Volume number (Issue number):page numbers.

Book: Author surname Author(s) initials no spacing. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher; Year: page numbers (if applicable)

Journals and periodicals

NLM Journals catalogue Journal names are abbreviated according to NLM Journals catalogue -http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals.

Journal article one author

In-text reference

Allocate a superscript numeral to each source when it is used for the first time. Numbers in round brackets can also be used. If the source is referred to again, the same numeral is used.

Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... final word.1  "..."1
   
Reference list
1. Alspach G. Chemosensory impairments in the elderly: nothing to sniff at. Critical Care Nurse. 1998;18(2):16-18.

Journal article two to six authors

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... for smokers.2 "..."2
   
Reference list
2. O’Brien J, Geike A, Jardine A, Oakes W, Salmon AM. Integrating smoking care in community service organisations to reach disadvantaged people: findings from the Smoking Matters Project. Health Promot J Austr. 2011;21:176-82.

Journals with electronic DOI

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... mental fitness.3 "..."3
Reference list
3. Fletcher D, Wagstaff CRD. Organisational psychology in elite sport: its emergence, application and future. Psychol Sport Exerc. [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2013 Nov 21];10(4):427-34. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.03.009.

Journals with electronic URL

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... their inequality.4 "..."4
Reference list
4. Shareck M, Frohlich KL, Poland B. Reducing social inequities in health through settings-related interventions—a conceptual framework. Glob Health Promot. [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2016 Dec 12];20(2),39-52. Available from: http://ped.sagepub.com/content/20/2/39.full
Books

Book one author

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... public health.5 "..."5
Reference list

5. Baum F. The new public health. 3rd ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press; 2008.

Book two authors

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... infected patients.6 "..."6
Reference list

6. Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.

Book electronic or eBook

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... methodolgy.7 "..."7
Reference list

7. van Belle G, Fisher LD, Heagerty PJ, Lumley TS. Biostatistics: a methodology for the health sciences [eBook]. 2nd ed. Somerset (NJ): Wiley InterScience; 2003 [cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from: Wiley InterScience electronic collection.

Book edited book

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... occasionally.8 "..."8
Reference list

8. DeVines J, editor. Food safety and toxicity. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1997.

Book chapter in edited book

Reference List

9. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

Online sources

Website no article title

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... the end.10 "..."10
Reference list

10. World Health Organization. Ottawa Charter for health promotion [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2013 Nov 11]. Available from: http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/ottawa/en/ 

Website with an article title

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... many ways.11 "..."11
Reference list

11. Department of Health. Creutzfeldt Jacob disease: guidance for healthcare workers [Internet]. c2003 [cited 2016 Nov 9]. Available from: http://www.doh.gov.uk/pdfs/cjdguidance.pdf.

Conference paper
In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... the field.12  "..."12
Reference list

12. Cordwell, T. The ageing population, accessing services with the help of technology. In: Sintchenko V, Croll P, editors. HIC 2009: Proceedings; Frontiers of Health Informatics - Redefining Healthcare; 2009 Aug 19-21; Canberra, Australia. Brunswick East, Vic.: Health Informatics Society of Australia (HISA); 2009. p. 114-115 [cited 2016 Nov 14]. Available from: http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=500575754465563;res=IELHEA

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