APA - University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia

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APA

Visit the official APA Style website for more information about the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.

Online journals and periodicals

For in-text citations, only surnames are used. Reference list entries must be in alphabetical order of the first author's surnames, and formatted with lines double-spaced and a hanging indent for 2nd and subsequent lines, as illustrated. In addition, include the digital object identifier (doi) in URL form (https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx); if no doi, include the hyperlinked URL.

Article Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title in Italics and Maximal       

             Capitalisation, Volume number in italics(Issue number if applicable in brackets), page

             numbers. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx

Journal - one author

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Nickel, 2004).  “…” (Nickel, 2004, p. 20).
 Nickel (2004) argues …  Nickel (2004) argues “…” (p. 20).
Reference list

Haggar, M. S. (2019). Embracing open science and transparency in health psychology.

            Health Psychology Review, 13(2), 131-136. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1605614

Nickel, M. (2004). Professional boundaries: The dilemma of dual & multiple relationships in

            rural clinical practice. Counselling and Clinical Psychology Journal1(1), 17-22.

            http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/ 

Journal - two authors

In-text reference

The ampersand '&' is used between authors inside the in-text citation bracket; 'and' is always used outside the bracket.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Jones & Tukey, 2000). “…” (Jones & Tukey, 2000, p. 412).
Jones and Tukey (2000) report … Jones and Tukey (2000) report “...” (p. 412).
Reference list

Jones, L. V., & Tukey, J. W. (2000). A sensible formulation of the significance 

          test. Psychological Methods, 5, 411-414. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.5.4.411

Journal - three to twenty authors

In-text reference

Use the surname of the first author then 'et al.' (meaning ‘and others’).

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

... (Mildenberger et al., 2002). “…” (Mildenberger et al., 2002, p. 921).
Mildenberger et al. (2002) define the concept as ... Mildenberger et al. (2002) define the concept as “...” (p. 921).
Reference list

Mildenberger, P., Eichenberg, M., & Martin, E. (2002). Introduction to the DICOM

            standard. European Radiology, 12, 920-927. doi:10.1007/s003300101100

Journal - twenty-one or more authors

In-text reference

Use the surname of the first author then 'et al.' (meaning ‘and others’).

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Sevigny et al., 2016). “…” (Sevigny et al., 2016, p. 55).
Sevigny et al. (2016) report … Sevigny et al. (2016) report “…” (p. 55).
Reference list

When there are more than 21 authors, list the first 19, then an ellipsis (…), then the last author.

Sevigny, J., Chiao, P., Bussière, T., Weinreb., P.H., Williams, L., Maier, M., Dunstan, R., Salloway, S.,

              Chen, T., Ling, Y., O’Gorman, J., Qian, F., Arastu, M., Li, M., Chollate, S., Brennan, M.S.,

              Quintero-Monzon, O., Scannevin, R.H., … Sandrock, A. (2016). The antibody aducanumab

              reduces Aβ plaques in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature, 237, 50-56.

              https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19323

Books

For in-text citations, only surnames are used. Reference list entries must be in alphabetical order of the first author's surnames, and formatted with lines double-spaced and a hanging indent for 2nd and subsequent lines, as illustrated. In addition, for online sources, include the digital object identifier (doi) in URL form (https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx); if no doi, include the hyperlinked URL.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of book (edition/volume).

            Publisher. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx

Book - one author

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Greetham, 2013). “…” (Greetham, 2013, p. 10).
Bandura (1977) found … Bandura (1977) found “…” (p. 10).
Reference list
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Prentice Hall.
Greetham, B. (2013). How to write better essays. (3rd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan.

Book - two authors

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Page & Stritzke, 2015) "…" (Page & Stritzke, 2015, p. 23)
Page and Stritzke (2015) state that … Page and Stritzke (2015) suggest that "…" (p. 23)
Reference list

Page, A. C., & Stritzke, W. G. K. (2015). Clinical psychology for trainees: Foundations of science-

          informed practice (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Book - three or more authors

In-text reference

Use the surname of the first author then 'et al.' (meaning ‘and others’).

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

... (Ranzijn et al., 2009) "..." (Ranzijn et al., 2009, p. 6)
Ranzijn et al. (2009) consider ... Ranzijn et al. (2009) propose that "..." (p. 6)
Reference list

Ranzijn, R., McConnochie, K., & Nolan, W. (2009). Psychology and Indigenous Australians:

          Foundations of cultural competence. Palgrave Macmillan.

Book - electronic book

In-text Reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Bertram & Pascal, 2016). “…” (Bertram & Pascal, 2016, p. 33).
Bertram and Pascal (2016) suggests … Bertram and Pascal (2016) defines … as “…” (p. 33).
Reference list

Follow the same rules as with a printed book but, include the digital object identifier (doi) in URL form (https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx); if no doi, include the hyperlinked URL.

Bertram, T., & Pascal, C. (2016). Early childhood policies and systems in eight countries.

            Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39847-1

Book - edited book

Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (Year). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx
In-text reference

 (Editor’s collection not attributed to individual chapter authorship)

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Kasdorf, 2003). “…” (Kasdorf, 2003, p. 12).
Kasdorf (2003) maintains … Kasdorf (2003) maintains “…” (p. 12).
Reference list

Kasdorf, W. E. (Ed.). (2003). The Columbia guide to digital publishing. Columbia

          University Press.

Book - chapter in edited book

Chapter Author, A. A., & Chapter Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.),

          Title of book (pp. x-x). Publisher. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Haybron, 2008). Haybron (2008) emphasises …
"…” (Haybron, 2008, p. 21). Haybron (2008) emphasises “…” (p. 21).
Reference list

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid, & R. J.

          Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). Guilford Press.

Book - citation from secondary source

In-text reference

Avoid unless the primary (original) source is not available (e.g. out of print)

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Culver, as cited in Jones, 2009). “…” (Culver, as cited in Jones, 2009, p. 21).
Culver (as cited in Jones, 2009) adds … Culver (as cited in Jones, 2009) adds “…” (p. 21)
Reference list
Jones, J. (2009). Scholarly writing tips. Publishing House.
Online sources

Online Reports and Grey literature

For in-text citations, only surnames are used. Reference list entries must be in alphabetical order of the first author's surnames, and formatted with lines double-spaced and a hanging indent for 2nd and subsequent lines, as illustrated. In addition, include the digital object identifier (doi) in URL form (https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx); if no doi, include the hyperlinked URL.

Author, A. A. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx).

          Publisher. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx

Include issue/report/statement/publication number if given. Omit publisher if publisher is the same as author or group.

In-text reference

For corporate or government authors with long titles, introduce and then use the initialism/acronym. Note the use of square brackets inside the in-text citation.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

First citation

… (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013).

or

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) contends …

First citation

"…" (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013, p. 2).

or

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013, p. 2) contends "…"

Subsequent citations

… (WHO, 2013).

or

WHO (2013) found …

Subsequent citations

"…" (WHO, 2013, p. 2).

or

WHO (2013, p. 2) found that "…"

Reference list

World Health Organization. (2013). Diabetes (Factsheet No. 312).

           http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/

Website Page - Author known

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. URL

If citing multiple pages from a website, create reference for each page cited. Omit site name if site name is the same as author or group.

In-text reference

If no page number, provide heading/section name and/or paragraph number.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

... (Sharman, 2015)  "..." (Sharman, 2015, para. 18)
Sharman (2015) explains ...  Sharman (2015) explains "..." (para. 18).
Reference List

Sharman, R. (2015, October 6). Children learn from stress and failure: All the more reason you shouldn’t do their

            homework. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/children-learn-from-stress-and-failure

Website Page - Organisation (author unknown)

Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. URL

If citing multiple pages from a website, create reference for each page cited. Omit site name if site name is the same as author or group.

In-text reference

If no page number, provide heading/section name and/or paragraph number.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

First citation

… (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2019).

or

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, 2019) contends …

First citation

"…" (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2019, Household projections section).

or

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, 2019, Household projections section) contends "…"

Subsequent citations

… (ABS, 2019).

or

ABS (2019) found …

Subsequent citations

"…" (ABS, 2019, Household projections section).

or

(ABS, 2019, Household projections section) found that "…"

Reference List

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2019, March 14). 3236.0 – Household and family projections, Australia,

             2016 to 2041. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/0/0AAC8BFAE9DD3241CA2568A90

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