Vancouver - JAMA style - University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia

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Vancouver - JAMA style

USC has now adopted JAMA style for USC Vancouver referencing. Consult the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors and the JAMA Open Network for more information about JAMA style referencing.

Vancouver Quick Guide - JAMA style

Vancouver Quick Guide (PDF 291KB)

Referencing guidelines

General information

USC Vancouver (JAMA style) is a variation of the Vancouver system and based on the guide for authors, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

The AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 11th ed is authored by JAMA Network editors and provides information on preparing written work for publication, including referencing, as well as guidelines on expression, style and grammar in written work. The AMA Manual is available via the USC library. The JAMA Open Network provides further examples of published journal articles and references as well as Instructions for Authors.

JAMA style referencing guidelines:

  • Allocate a superscript1 numeral to each source when it is used for the first time. Place the superscript numeral outside “quotation marks”2, (parentheses)3, commas,4 and full stops.5 However, place it inside colons6: and semicolons7;                                                                                                                                            Check with your lecturer/tutor if numerals can be used in round brackets. (1)
  • If the source is referred to again, the same numeral is used.
  • References are listed in numerical order in the reference list at the end of the work (not in alphabetical order).
  • Where to place the citation numeral:
    • At the end of the clause in which the information is used.
    • When using the authors name in-text, place the citation number after the author’s surname.
  • If more than one source is to be cited at the same place, the appropriate numerals are used, separated by a comma. Example: Several studies agree with Shaw’s2 findings … final word.2,3,5    
  • Use a hyphen to join the first and last numbers of a closed series. Example: Studies1-4,7 found that …   
  • For three or more authors, use et al after the first author when the work is cited within the sentence. Example: Results found by O’Brien et al3 show …
  • Examples of how to include page numbers:

    Westman5(pp3,5),9 reported 8 cases in which numbness occurred.

    Patients showed “no signs of diabetes”.8(p219)  (Direct quote = exact wording as the source)   

  • Tables, Figures and Boxes require a sequential number (for each type) and title. If a reference is needed, the referencing superscript number is placed at the end of the title, follows the sequence within the text, and forms part of the referencing list.

    Example: Figure 1. Healthy Eating Pyramid10

  • The title (and subtitle) of the whole work is usually in italics and Title Case (book, journal, database), except for web sites. Examples:
  1. Alspach G. Chemosensory impairments in the elderly: nothing to sniff at. Crit Care Nurse. 1998;18(2):16-18.
  2. Baum F. The New Public Health. 4th ed. Oxford University Press; 2016.
  • The title (and subtitle) of the part of a whole work is always in sentence case (minimal capitalisation) and not in italics (title of article, chapter in book, part of database, web page or item):
  1. Alspach G. Chemosensory impairments in the elderly: nothing to sniff at. Crit Care Nurse. 1998;18(2):16-18.
  2. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, eds. The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill; 2002:93-113.
Basic citation elements (see specific source sections for more details and examples)

Journal: Author surname Author initial(s). Title of article (minimal capitalisation). Abbreviated journal title in italics (use initial capital letters). Year;Volume number(Issue number):page numbers.

Book: Author surname Author initial(s). Title of book in italics and Title Case (each major word capitalised). Edition (if applicable). Publisher; Year

Web Site: Author(s) (if given, or organisation responsible). Title (if not available, name of organisation responsible). Published date. Updated date. Accessed date. (list only available dates; often only the Accessed date is available) URL

Example paragraph and reference list

TBA

Journals and periodicals

Journal names are abbreviated according to the Journal Record in the NLMA catalogue (PubMed) and in italics. The AMA Manual of Style includes a chapter on abbreviating journal titles.

The title (and subtitle) of the article are in sentence case (only capitalise first letter of first word and proper names/abbreviations) and not in italics.

Journal - one author

In-text reference

Allocate a superscript numeral to each source when it is used for the first time. If the source is referred to again, the same numeral is used.

Paraphrase
Direct Quote
Alspach1 reports that …     “…”1(p16)
Reference list

Standard pattern: Author AA. Title of article. Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):pp-pp.

  1. Alspach G. Chemosensory impairments in the elderly: nothing to sniff at. Crit Care Nurse. 1998;18(2):16-18.

Journal - two to six authors

In-text reference

When citing the author names within a sentence: For one or two authors, list all names. For three or more authors, use et al after the first author.

Paraphrase
Direct Quote
Results found by O’Brien et al3 show that …     “…”3(p179)
… smoking related health issues.3  
Reference list

Standard pattern: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of article. Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):pp-pp.

Note: EndNote (JAMA style) automatically limits to three authors and adds et al. after the 3rd author; manual editing may be required.

  1. O’Brien J, Geike A, Jardine A, Oakes W, Salmon A. Integrating smoking care in community service organisations to reach disadvantaged people: findings from the Smoking Matters Project. Health Promot J Austr. 2010;21(3):176-182.

Journal - more than six authors

When citing the author names within a sentence: For three or more authors, use et al after the first author.

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
Rose et al5 found that…     “…”5(p18)
… after cortical contusion injury.5  
Reference list

If the article has more than six authors, list the first three authors, followed by et al.

Standard pattern: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al. Title of article. Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):pp-pp.

Note: EndNote (JAMA style) automatically limits to three authors and adds et al. after the 3rd author.

  1. Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;943(1):15-22.

Journals - with DOI (digital object identifier)

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
Fletcher and Wagstaff8 hypothesise…     “…”8(p431)
… mental fitness.8  
Reference list

Use the DOI number if it is provided; Accessed date is not required when using the DOI number. Standard pattern: Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):pp-pp. doi:10…..

  1. Fletcher D, Wagstaff CRD. Organisational psychology in elite sport: its emergence, application and future. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2009;10(4):427-434. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.03.009                             

.

  1. Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM, Hayatbakhsh MR, et al. Cannabis use and educational achievement: findings from three Australasian cohort studies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;110(3):247-253. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.03.008

Cochrane Review

Cited as electronic journal article. Use this format for database articles that have database numbers rather than page numbers.

Reference list
  1. Linde K, Allais G, Brinkhaus B, et al. Acupuncture for the prevention of episodic migraine. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2016;(6):CD001218. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001218.pub3

Journal - with electronic URL (DOI not available)

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
Jones9 asserts …    “…”9(p1556)
… additional benefits.9  
Reference list

Standard pattern: Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):pp-pp. Accessed month day, year. URL

  1. Jones PJ. Clinical nutrition: 7. Functional foods - more than just nutrition. CMAJ. 2002;166(12):1555–1563. Accessed October 28, 2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC113804/pdf/20020611s00024p1555.pdf
Books

The title (and subtitle) of a book is in italics and Title Case (each major word is capitalised).

Book - one author

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
Baum2 views …     “…”2(p17)
… public health.2  
Reference list

Standard pattern: Author AA (or organisation). Title of Book (in italics and Title Case: each major word is capitalised). Edition number (if applicable). Publisher; Year.

  1. Baum F. The New Public Health. 4th ed. Oxford University Press; 2016.

Book - two to six authors

In-text reference

When citing the author names within a sentence: For one or two authors/editors, list all names. For three or more authors/editors, use et al after the first author/editor.

Paraphrase
Direct Quote
Garrow et al4 explains…..     “…”4(p81)
… a healthy diet.4  
Reference list

Standard pattern: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of Book (in italics and Title Case: each major word is capitalised). Edition number (if applicable). Publisher; Year.

Note: EndNote (JAMA style) automatically limits to three authors and adds et al. after the 3rd author; manual editing may be required.

Standard pattern: Author AA (or organisation). Title of Book (in italics and Title Case: each major word is capitalised). Edition number (if applicable). Publisher; Year.

  1. Garrow JS, James WPT, Ralph A. Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 10th ed. Churchill Livingstone; 2000.
  1. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Health Data Governance: Privacy, Monitoring and Research. OECD Publishing; 2015. doi:10.1787/9789264244566-en

Book - more than six authors or editors

In-text reference

When citing the author names within a sentence: For three or more authors/editors, use et al after the first author/editor.

Paraphrase
Direct Quote
  Alldredge et al29 explain….     “…”29(p65)
Reference list

If the book has more than six authors/editors, list the first three authors/editors, followed by et al.

Standard pattern: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al.(, eds. - if applicable) Title of Book (in italics and Title Case: each major word is capitalised). Edition number (if applicable). Publisher; Year.

Note: EndNote (JAMA style) automatically limits to three authors and adds et al. after the 3rd author.

  1. Alldredge BK, Corelli RL, Ernst ME, et al, eds. Koda-Kimble and Young’s Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs. 10th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2013.

Book - chapter in edited book

Reference List

When citing the author/editor names within a sentence: For one or two authors/editors, list all names. For three or more authors/editors, use et al after the first author/editor.

Paraphrase
Direct Quote
Meltzer et al6 explain…     “…”6(p101)
… occasionally.6  
Reference list

Standard pattern: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of chapter. In: Editor AA, Editor BB, eds. Title of Book (In Italics and Title Case: each major word is capitalised). Edition number (if applicable). Publisher; Year:pp-pp.

  1. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, eds. The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill; 2002:93-113.

.

  1. Frenken K, Hoekman J, Kok S, Ponds R, van Oort F, van Vliet J. Death of distance in science? a gravity approach to research collaboration. In: Pyka A, Scharnhorst A, eds. Innovation Networks: New Approaches in Modelling and Analyzing. Springer; 2009:43-57. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92267-4_3
  2. Niederberger M, Keller M. Mixed methods studies in health promotion: a case-study based on the life situations of young people of refugee backgrounds in Germany. In: Kabir R, Rahman S, Majumder MdAA, eds. Public Health – Emerging and Re-emerging Issues. In-Tech Open; 2018:75-90. doi:10.5772/intechopen.72391

Book electronic or eBook

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
Griffiths and Mooney7 recommend…     “…”7(p62)
… in research.7  
Reference list

Standard pattern: Author AA, Author BB. Title of Book (In Italics and Title Case: each major word is capitalised). Edition number (if applicable). Publisher; Year. URL OR DOI

  1. Griffiths P, Mooney GP, eds. The Paramedic’s Guide to Research: An Introduction. McGraw-Hill Education; 2012. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=29fadea7-bdf2-4a0a-b60e-a8c62cb03eca%40sdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=434999&db=nlebk
  1. Ekvall SW, Ekvall VK, eds. Pediatric and Adult Nutrition in Chronic Diseases, Developmental Disabilities, and Hereditary Metabolic Disorders: Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment. Oxford University Press; 2017. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199398911.001.0001
Online sources

These online sources can include web sites, home pages, information in pdf, video or audio format.

Standard pattern: Author(s) (or organisation responsible, if given). Title of the page or specific item. (sentence case, no italics) Name of the website (if different to organisation as author; Title Case, no italics). Published date. OR Updated date. Accessed date. (list available dates) URL.

Use the Updated date over the Published date if available; no need to include both.

Website 

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
The World Health Organization (WHO)10 outlines…        "..."10
… in managing public health.11  
Reference list

Standard pattern: If given: Author(s) (or organisation). Title of the page or specific item. Name of website (if required). Published date. OR Updated date. Accessed date. (list available dates). URL

  1. World Health Organization. The Ottawa Charter for health promotion. Published November 21, 1986. Accessed October 2, 2019. https://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/ottawa/en/
  2. Queensland Health. Dengue advice for health practitioners. Updated January 11, 2018. Accessed October 4, 2019. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/clinical-practice/guidelines-procedures/diseases-infection/diseases/mosquito-borne/dengue/health-practitioners

Report

  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia’s health 2018. Published June 20, 2018. Accessed October 4, 2019. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2018/contents/table-of-contents
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 3303.0 - Australia’s leading causes of death, 2018. Published September 25, 2019. Accessed October 4, 2019. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3303.0Main+Features12018?OpenDocument

Drug databases online

At USC, it is preferred practice to name/identify the specific drug rather than citing the online database as a whole.

Reference list

Standard pattern: Author(s) (if available). Title of entry [type of entry, if applicable]. In: Editor AA, Editor BB, eds (if available). Title of Database (in italics and Title Case: each major word is capitalised). Publisher. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date. (list only available dates; often only the Updated and Accessed dates are available) URL (home page)

  1. Brufen [product information]. In: MIMS Online. MIMS Australia. Updated March 1, 2019. Accessed November 7, 2019. https://www.mimsonline.com.au
  2. Rigotti NA, Kalkhoran S. Vaping and e-cigarettes. In: UpToDate. UpToDate Inc. Updated October 21, 2019. Accessed November 7, 2019. https://www.uptodate.com

Standards

Reference list

Standard pattern: If given: Author(s) (or organisation). Title of the page or specific item. Name of website (if required). Published date. OR Updated date. Accessed date. (list available dates). URL

  1. Nutrition and Menu Work Group, Statewide Foodservices (AU). Queensland health nutrition standards for meals and menus. Queensland Health. Published December 2018. Accessed November 1, 2019. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0030/156288/qh-nutrition-standards.pdf

Table, Figure, Image

In-text reference

Add a caption (Table or Figure number, title, and citation numeral if information/material is taken from a source). If an image does not have a title, provide a brief description of the image as the title.

Example: Figure 1. A model for Evidence-Informed Decision Making in Public Health17

Example: Table 1. Minimum recommended number of serves from the dairy food group18

Reference list
  1. National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. A model for evidence-informed decision making in public health [image]. Accessed July 31, 2018. https://www.nccmt.ca/about/eiph
  2. Nutrition Australia. Minimum recommended number of serves from the dairy food group [table]. Accessed January 14, 2020. https://www.nutritionaustralia.org/national/resource/dairy-foods-how-much-enough

Video/audio

Standard pattern: Author(s) (or organisation). Title of page or object. Name of website (Title Case, not in italics). Published date. OR Updated date. Accessed date. (if available; Updated date takes preference over Published date, no need to include both) URL

Reference list
  1. University of California Television. The impact of exercise on cognitive functioning [video]. YouTube. Published April 6, 2016. Accessed November 28, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gfL7bxPAarY
  2. BBC Worldwide. Antibiotic apocalypse [video]. Published 2015. Accessed January 10, 2020. https://video.alexanderstreet.com/watch/antibiotic-apocalypse/cite?context=channel:panorama
  3. State Government of Victoria. About trauma, reactions and recovery [podcast]. The Better Healthcast. Updated January 2020. Accessed January 10, 2020. https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/podcasts/trauma-reactions-and-recovery
Conference paper
In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... building confidence.27   "..."27(slide 9)
Reference list
  1. Russell J. Improving and maintaining social connection and cooking confidence through community cooking classes. Presented at: Food Futures Conference; November 20, 2018. Accessed January 10, 2020. https://www.phaa.net.au/documents/item/3182
  2. Cordwell T. The ageing population, accessing services with the help of technology. In: Sintchenko V, Croll P, eds. HIC 2009: Proceedings; Frontiers of Health Informatics - Redefining Healthcare, National Convention Centre Canberra, 19-21 August 2009. Health Informatics Society of Australia (HISA); 2009:114-115. Accessed January 16, 2020. http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=500575754465563;res=IELHEA