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APA resources
In-text citations
Key elements

An in-text citation entry will generally have these elements:

  • Author: Who is responsible for this work?
  • Date: When was the work published?
  • Page numbers: Essential when using a direct quote
Parenthetical Citation (Information Prominent)

The information is prominent and the citation is at the end of the sentence in brackets.

Format
Paraphrase ... (Author, Year).
Direct Quotation "..." (Author, Year, p. x).
Example
Paraphrase … materials and methods used within health psychology research (Haggar, 2019).
Direct Quotation The aim is to accelerate “complex communication processes in medicine needs standards” (Mildenberger et al., 2002, p. 921).
Narrative Citation (Author Prominent)

The citation is within the sentence highlighting the Author/s and their idea.

If using repeated Author Prominent citations in a single paragraph (without other sources), omit the year after the first narrative citation.

If no page number, provide heading/section name and/or paragraph number (Section Name section, para. x).

Format
    Repeated
Paraphrase Author (Year) found … The author demonstrates …    or     Author Name found that
Direct Quotation  Author (Year) asserts “…” (p. x). Author Name identified that “…” (p. x).
Example
Paraphrase According to Deci and Ryan (1980), automatic behaviours are defined as …
Direct Quotation Sevigny et al.’s (2016) clinical trial results “support continued development of aducanumab as a disease-modifying treatment for AD” (p. 55).
More Information
APA Style - In-Text Citations
Chapter 8 of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition" (American Psychological Association, 2020)
References
Key elements

A reference list entry will generally have these four elements:

  • Author: Who is responsible for this work?
  • Date: When was the work published?
  • Title: What is it called?
  • Source: Where can I retrieve this work?
Reference list rules
  • End of text on a new page labelled “References”
  • Lines double-spaced
  • Hanging indent for 2nd and subsequent lines
  • Arranged alphabetically by first word of reference
  • Retain the order of authors given by the source
Example reference list

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2019, March 14). 3236.0 – Household and family

          projections, Australia, 2016 to 2041. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/

          abs@.nsf/0/0AAC8BFAE9DD3241CA2568A90013942A?Opendocument

Haggar, M. S. (2019). Embracing open science and transparency in health

          psychology. Health Psychology Review, 13(2), 131-136.

          https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1605614

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In

         M. Eid, & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-

          43). Guilford Press.

Nickel, M. (2004). Professional boundaries: The dilemma of dual & multiple

          relationships in rural clinical practice. Counselling and Clinical Psychology

          Journal1(1), 17-22. http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/ 

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2018). Code of conduct for

          nurses. http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-

          Statements/Professional-standards.aspx

Page, A. C., & Stritzke, W. G. K. (2015). Clinical psychology or trainees:

          Foundations of science-informed practice (2nd ed.). Cambridge University

          Press.

Qinlock. (2021). MIMS Online. Retrieved February 12, 2021,

          from https://www.mimsonline.com.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?

          ModuleName=Product%20Info&ID=134910001_2 

Wexler, D. J., Nathan, D. M., & Mulder, J. E. (2020). Initial management of

          hyperglycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. UpToDate. Retrieved

          February 2, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/initial-

          management-of-hyperglycemia-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus 

More Information
Author rules
One Author
In-text Format: Example:
Parenthetical citation: ... (Author, Year). ... (Haggar, 2019).
Narrative citation: Author (year) ... Haggar (2019) ...
References  
Format: Author, A. A. (Year). ...
Example:

Haggar, M. S. (2019). ...

Two Authors

Use “&” for parenthetical citations; “and” for narrative citations.

In-text Format: Example:
Parenthetical citation: ... (Author & Author, Year). ... (Deci & Ryan, 1980).
Narrative citation: Author and Author (Year) ... Deci and Ryan (1980) ...
References  
Format: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). ...
Example: Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1980). ...
3-20 Authors

For in-text citations, use the surname of the first author then 'et al.' (meaning ‘and others’).

In-text Format: Example:
Parenthetical citation: ... (Author et al., Year). ... (Mildenberger et al., 2002)
Narrative citation: Author et al. (Year) ... Mildenberger et al. (2002) ...

List all of the authors in the reference list.

References  
Format: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D. (Year). ...
Example: Mildenberger, P., Eichenberg, M., & Martin, E. (2002). ...
21+ authors

For in-text citations, use the surname of the first author then 'et al.' (meaning ‘and others’).

In-text Format: Example:
Parenthetical citation: ... (Author et al., Year). ... (Sevigny et al., 2016)
Narrative citation: Author et al. (Year) ... Sevigny et al. (2016) ...

List first 19 authors, followed by ellipsis (…), then last author.

References  
Format:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author,

          E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I.,

          Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M.,

          Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q.,

          Author, R. R., Author, S. S., … Author, Z. Z. (Year). ...

Example:

Sevigny, J., Chiao, P., Bussière, T., Weinreb., P.H., Williams, L.,

         Maier, M., Dunstan, R., Salloway, S., Chen, T., Ling, Y.,

         O’Gorman, J., Qian, F., Arastu, M., Li, M., Chollate, S., Brennan,

         M.S., Quintero-Monzon, O., Scannevin, R.H., … Sandrock, A.

         (2016). ...

Organisation or Government

In-text
Parenthetical Citation ... (Name of Group/Department, Year).
Narrative Citation Name of Group/Department (Year) ...
References
Name of Group/Department. (Year). ...
Organisation or Government with Common Acronyms
In-text

First citation:

Parenthetical Citation ... (Name of Group/Department [Acronym], Year).
Narrative Citation

Name of Group/Department (Acronym, Year) ...

Subsequent citation:

Parenthetical Citation ... (Acronym, Year).
Narrative Citation

Acronym (Year)...

References
  • Name in full only, no acronym
Name of Group/Department. (Year). ...


Editors
In-text
Parenthetical Citation  ... (Editor, Year).
Narrative Citation Editor (Year) ...
References
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). ...
Individual Chapter Authorship
In-text
Parenthetical citation: ... (Chapter Author, Year).
Narrative citation: (Chapter Author, Year) ...
References

Chapter Author A. A., & Chapter Author B. B. (Year). Chapter Title. In A. A. Editor

          & B. B. Editor (Eds.). ...

Citing multiple sources

For parenthetical citations, list the multiple sources in alphabetical order, separated by semicolons.

Example: ... (Deci & Ryan, 1980; Haggar, 2019; Wexler et al., 2020).

For narrative citations, multiple source can be cited in any order.

Example: Wexler et al. (2020), Deci and Ryan (1980), and Haggar (2019) ...
Sources with the same author name - different years

For paraphrases, arrange the citation in ascending chronological order based on the year of publication separated by a comma.

Paraphrases Format: Example:
Parenthetical citation: ... (Author, Year A, Year B, Year C). ... (Smith, 2012, 2015, 2018).
Narrative citation: Author (Year A, Year B, Year C) ... Smith (2012, 2015, 2018) ...

For direct quotes, separate the page references from the date following it with a semi-colon.

Direct quotes Format: Example:
Parenthetical citation: ... (Author, Year A, p. x; Year B, p. x; Year C, p. x). ... (Smith, 2012, p. 5; 2015, p. 19; 2018, p. 25).
Narrative citation: Author (Year A, p. x; Year B, p. x; Year C, p. x) ... Smith (2012, p. 5; 2015, p. 19; 2018, p. 25) ...
Sources with the same author name - same year

In the reference list, list the sources in alphabetical order based on the the title of the work. Then add a suffix (e.g. a, b, etc.) after the year.

Reference - example
Smith, A. B. (2021a). Botanical discrimination ...
Smith, A. B. (2021b). Identification of ...
Smith, A. B. (2021c). Plant dispersal ...
Paraphrases Format: Example:
Parenthetical citation: ... (Author, Yeara, Yearb, Yearc). ... (Smith, 2021a, 2021b, 2021c).
Narrative citation: Author (Yeara, Yearb, Yearc) ... Smith (2021a, 2021b, 2021c) ...

For direct quotes, separate the page references from the date following it with a semi-colon.

Direct quotes Format: Example:
Parenthetical citation: ... (Author, Yeara, p. x; Yearb, p. x; Yearc, p. x). ... (Smith, 2021a, p. 5; 2021b, p. 19; 2021c, p. 25).
Narrative citation: Author (Yeara, p. x; Yearb, p. x; Yearc, p. x) ... Smith (2021a, p. 5; 2021b, p. 19; 2021c, p. 25) ...
No Author
In-text
Parenthetical Citation  ... (Title, Year).
Narrative Citation Title (Year) ...
References
  • Only when it is clear that there is no Author, Group, or Governing Body, put title before date, then source ignoring “A”, “An”, and “The” at beginning of title.
Title. (Year). ...
No Date
In-text
Parenthetical Citation ... (Author, n.d.).
Narrative Citation Author (n.d.) ...
References
Author, A. A. (n.d.). ...
Citation from secondary source

Avoid unless the primary (original) source is not available, for example out of print.

In-text Format: Example:
Parenthetical citation: ... (Primary Author, as cited in Secondary Source Author, Year). … (Culver, as cited in Jones, 2009).
Narrative citation: Primary Author (as cited in Secondary  Source Author, Year) ... Culver (as cited in Jones, 2009) ...
References  
Format: Secondary Source Author, A. A. (Year). ...
Example: Jones, J. (2009). ...
More Information
Journals (Periodicals)
Format

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title in Italics

          and Maximal Capitalisation, Volume number in italics(Issue number

          if applicable in brackets), page numbers. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxx

  • Periodicals include journals, magazines and newspapers which are published on a continuous basis.
  • Include the digital object identifier (doi) in URL form (https://doi.org/10.xxxxxx)
  • If there is no doi, include the hyperlinked URL (http://xxxxx)
More information
APA Style - Reference Examples
Section 10.1 of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition" (American Psychological Association, 2020, pp. 316-321)
Journal - one author
Example

Haggar, M. S. (2019). Embracing open science and transparency in health

          psychology. Health Psychology Review, 13(2), 131-136.

          https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1605614

Nickel, M. (2004). Professional boundaries: The dilemma of dual & multiple

          relationships in rural clinical practice. Counselling and Clinical Psychology

          Journal1(1), 17-22. http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/ 

In-text

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Nickel, 2004).  “…” (Nickel, 2004, p. 20).
 Nickel (2004) argues …  Nickel (2004) argues “…” (p. 20).


Journal - two authors

In-text reference
  • The ampersand '&' is used between authors inside the in-text citation bracket; 'and' is always used outside the bracket.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Jones & Tukey, 2000). “…” (Jones & Tukey, 2000, p. 412).
Jones and Tukey (2000) report … Jones and Tukey (2000) report “...” (p. 412).
Reference list

Jones, L. V., & Tukey, J. W. (2000). A sensible formulation of the significance test.

         Psychological Methods, 5, 411-414. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.5.4.411

Journal - three to twenty authors
In-text reference
  • Use the surname of the first author then 'et al.' (meaning ‘and others’).

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

... (Mildenberger et al., 2002). “…” (Mildenberger et al., 2002, p. 921).
Mildenberger et al. (2002) define the concept as ... Mildenberger et al. (2002) define the concept as “...” (p. 921).
Reference list

Mildenberger, P., Eichenberg, M., & Martin, E. (2002). Introduction to the DICOM 

          standard. European Radiology, 12, 920-927.

          https://doi.org/10.1007/s003300101100

Journal - twenty-one or more authors
In-text reference
  • Use the surname of the first author then 'et al.' (meaning ‘and others’).

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Sevigny et al., 2016). “…” (Sevigny et al., 2016, p. 55).
Sevigny et al. (2016) report … Sevigny et al. (2016) report “…” (p. 55).
Reference list
  • When there are more than 21 authors, list the first 19, then an ellipsis (…), then the last author.

Sevigny, J., Chiao, P., Bussière, T., Weinreb., P.H., Williams, L., Maier, M., Dunstan, R.,

         Salloway, S., Chen, T., Ling, Y., O’Gorman, J., Qian, F., Arastu, M., Li, M., Chollate,

         S., Brennan, M.S., Quintero-Monzon, O., Scannevin, R.H., … Sandrock, A.

         (2016). The antibody aducanumab reduces Aβ plaques in Alzheimer’s disease.

         Nature, 237, 50-56. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19323

Reports and Grey Literature
Government reports

Format

Author, A. A. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx).

          Publisher. https://xxxxxx

Include issue/report/statement/publication number if given. Omit publisher if publisher is the same as author or group.

References - examples

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020, July 15). Diabetes (Cat. No:

          CVD 82). https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes/contents

          /what-is-diabetes  

Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2020). Closing the gap report

          2019. https://ctgreport.niaa.gov.au/sites/default/files/pdf/closing-the

          -gap-report-2020.pdf

In-text First citation:
Parenthetical Citation:  ... (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2020). 
Narrative Citation:  Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW, 2020) ... 
In-text Subsequent citation (only if used more than three times):
Parenthetical Citation:  ... (AIHW, 2020).
Narrative Citation:  AIHW (2020)... 
More information
APA Style: Report by a Government Agency 
Section 10.4 of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition" (American Psychological Association, 2020, pp. 329-332). 


Coroner's report

Format

Name of Court. (Year). Title of report (File No. xxx). https://xxxxxx

References - example

Queensland Courts. (2012). Inquest into the death of Judith McNaught (File No.

          2010/1894). https://www.courts.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010

          /170101/cif-mcnaught-j-20121206.pdf

In-text - example  
Parenthetical citations: ... (Queensland Courts, 2020). 
Narrative citations: Queensland Courts (2020) ...
Online sources
Website Page - Organisations
Format
Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. http://xxxxx

If citing multiple pages from a website, create reference for each page cited. Omit site name if site name is the same as author or group.

References - example

Beyond Blue. (2020). Sleeping well. https://www.beyondblue.org.au/get-support

          /staying-well/sleeping-well 

In-text - example  
Parenthetical citations: ... (Beyond Blue, 2020).
Narrative citations: Beyond Blue (2020) ...
Website Page - Government
Format
Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. http://xxxxx

References - example

Department of Health. (2021, June 14). COVID-19 vaccines. Australian

          Government. https://www.health.gov.au/initiatives-and-programs/

          covid-19-vaccines

In-text - example First citation:
Parenthetical citations: ... (Department of Health, 2021).
Narrative citations: Department of Health (2021) ...
Notes
If citing multiple pages from a website, create reference for each page cited.
Omit the site name in the reference list if site name is the same as author or group.
Website Page - Author known
Format
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. http://xxxxx
References - example

Sharman, R. (2015, October 6). Children learn from stress and failure: All the

          more reason you shouldn’t do their homework. The Conversation.

          https://theconversation.com/children-learn-from-stress-and-failure

In-text - example First citation:
Parenthetical citations: ... (Sharman, 2015).
Narrative citations: Sharman (2015) ...
Notes
Use only if no parent or overarching publication, for example report, journal, infographic or blog, can be found.
If citing multiple pages from a website, create reference for each page cited.
Omit site name if it is the same as author or group.
Website Page - no date
Format
Name of Group. (n.d.). Title of work. Site Name. http://xxxxx
References - example

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (n.d.). Senior

          secondary curriculum: Mathematical methods. https://www.australian

          curriculum.edu.au/senior-secondary-curriculum/mathematics/mathematical

         -methods/?unit=Unit+1&unit=Unit+2&unit=Unit+3&unit=Unit+4

In-text - example First citation:
Parenthetical citations: ... (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], n.d.).
Narrative citations: Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA, n.d.) ...
In-text - example Subsequent citations:
Parenthetical citations: ... (ACARA, n.d.).
Narrative citations: ACARA (n.d.) ...
More information
APA Style - Webpage on a Website References
Section 10.16 of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition" (American Psychological Association, 2020, pp. 350-352)
Health databases and clinical tools
Australian Medicines Handbook

Format

Title of entry. (Year). Title of source. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from

          https://xxxxx 

References - example

Metformin. (2021). Australian Medicines Handbook. Retrieved May 18,

          2021, from https://amhonline.amh.net.au/chapters/endocrine-

          drugs/drugs-diabetes/other-drugs-diabetes/metformin

In-text - examples  
Parenthetical citations: ... ("Metformin", 2021).
Narrative citations:  "Metformin" (2021) ...
Notes
Use the full title or shortened version enclosed with double quotation marks in-text when the work has no author
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Format

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Cochrane Database of

          Systematic Reviews, vol(issue), x-x. https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx 

References - example

Dowman, L., Hill, C. J., May, A., & Holland, A. E. (2021). Pulmonary rehabilitation

          for interstitial lung disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

          https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006322.pub4 

In-text - examples
 
Parenthetical citations: ... (Dowman et al., 2021).
Narrative citations: Dowman et al. (2021) ... 
Notes
Articles that appear in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews are only available in that database.
Different versions of Cochrane reviews include different information, which means the reference might vary too.
Follow the principle of citing what you see.  

More information

APA Style - Clinical Practice References

Section 10.1.13 of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition" (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 319).
Codes of conduct

Format

Author, A. A. or Group author name. (Year). Title of code italicised.

          https://xxxxx 

References - example

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2018). Code of conduct for

          nurses. http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-

          Statements/Professional-standards.aspx

In-text- example First citation:
Parenthetical Citation: ... (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia [NMBA], 2018).
Narrative Citation:

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA, 2018) ...

In-text- example Subsequent citation:
Parenthetical Citation:  ... (NMBA, 2018).
Narrative Citation:

NMBA (2018)...

Notes
For corporate or government authors with long titles, introduce and then use the initialism/acronym
Note the use of square brackets inside the in-text citation
More information
APA Style - Clinical Practice References


MIMS Online

Format

Title of entry. (Year). Title of source. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from

          https://xxxxx 

References - example

Qinlock. (2021). MIMS Online. Retrieved February 12, 2021,

          from https://www.mimsonline.com.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?

          ModuleName=Product%20Info&ID=134910001_2 

In-text - example  
Parenthetical citations: ... ("Qinlock", 2020).
Narrative citations: "Qinlock" (2020) ...
Notes
Use the full title or shortened version enclosed with double quotation marks in-text when the work has no author
Nursing textbooks
Chapter from Kozier and Erb

Format

Chapter Author, A. A., & Chapter Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In C. C.

          Author & D. D. Author, Title of book (x ed., Vol. X, pp. x-x). Publisher.  

References - example

Levett-Jones, T. (2021). Communicating. In A. Berman, G. Frandsen, S.J. Snyder, T.

          Levett-Jones, A. Burston, T. Dwyer, M. Hales, N. Harvey, T. Langtree, L.

          Moxham, K. Reid-Searle, F. Rolf, & D. Stanley, Kozier and Erb’s fundamentals

          of nursing: Concepts, process and practice (5th Australian ed., Vol. 2., pp.

          483-504). Pearson.

In-text - example  
Parenthetical citations ... (Levett-Jones, 2021). 
Narrative citations: Levett-Jones (2021) ... 
Notes
At no place are any “editors” of the book mentioned (they are called authors) so this is omitted from the reference 
Each chapter has clearly named authors 
Chapter from Lewis’s medical-surgical nursing

Format

Chapter Author, A. A., & Chapter Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In C. C.

          Editor & D. D. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (x ed., pp. x-x). Publisher.  

References - example

Lewis, S. L., & Twyford, K. L. (2017). Nursing assessment: Visual and auditory

          problems. In D. Brown, H. Edwards, T. Buckley, & R. L. Aitken (Eds.), 

          Lewis’s medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of

          clinical problems (5th ANZ ed., pp. 434-463). Elsevier. 

In-text - example  
Parenthetical citations: ... (Lewis & Twyford, 2017).
Narrative citations: Lewis and Twyford (2017) ...
More information
APA Style – Chapter in an Edited Book/Ebook References 
Section 10.3 of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition" (American Psychological Association, 2020, pp. 326-329). 
Chapter from Skills in clinical nursing

Format

Chapter Author, A. A., & Chapter Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In C. C.

          Editor & D. D. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (x ed., pp. x-x). Publisher.  

References - example

Harvey, N. (2021). Respiratory nursing skills. In A. Berman, S. Snyder, C.

          Jackson, T. Levett-Jones, T. Burton, & N. Harvey (Eds.), Skills in

          clinical nursing (2nd Australian ed., pp. 555-628). Pearson Australia.

In-text - example  
Parenthetical citations: ... (Harvey, 2021).
Narrative citations: Harvey (2021) ...
More information
APA Style – Chapter in an Edited Book/Ebook References 
Section 10.3 of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition" (American Psychological Association, 2020, pp. 326-329). 
Chapter from Smeltzer and Bare
Format
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book (x ed., Vol. x). Publisher Name. 

References - example

Farrell, M. (Ed.). (2017). Smeltzer & Bare’s textbook of medical-surgical nursing

          (4th ANZ ed., Vol. 1). Wolters Kluwer.

In-text  
Parenthetical citations:   ... (Farrell, 2017).
Narrative citations  Farrell (2017) ...
Notes
The Chapters are attributed to “Contributors and reviewers” on p. vii of vol. 1, but they do not appear on the actual chapters in the text.
It is not clear what each of these contributors actually did, so we cannot assume they are the “author” of the chapter.
On balance the only reasonable course seems to be to cite it as a whole book.
More information
APA Style - Book/Ebook References 
Section 10.2 of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition" (American Psychological Association, 2020, pp. 321-322).
Ottawa Charter
Format
Organisation. (Year). Title of charter. http://xxxxx
References - example

World Health Organization. (1986). Ottawa charter for health promotion: First

          international conference on health promotion Ottawa, 21 November 1986.

          https://www.healthpromotion.org.au/images/ottawa_charter_hp.pdf

In-text - examples First citation
Parenthetical Citation: ... (World Health Organization [WHO], 1986).
Narrative Citation: World Health Organization (WHO, 1986) ...
In-text - example Subsequent citations
Parenthetical Citation: ... (WHO, 1986).
Narrative Citation: WHO (1986) ...
Standards - NMBA

Format

Name of standards organisation. (Year of publication). Standard

          name italicised. https//:xxxxx 

References - example

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2016). Registered nurse standards

          for practice. http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-

          Guidelines-Statements/Professional-standards/registered-nurse-

          standards-for-practice.aspx

In-text - example First citation:
Parenthetical Citation: ... (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia [NMBA], 2016).
Narrative Citation:

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA, 2016) ...

In-text - example Subsequent citation:
Parenthetical Citation: Standard 4.2 was developed to ... (NMBA, 2016).
Narrative Citation:

NMBA (2016)...

Notes
For corporate or government authors with long titles, introduce and then use the initialism/acronym.
Note the use of square brackets inside the in-text citation.

 

Standards - NSQHS

Format

Name of standards organisation. (Year of publication). Standard

          name italicised (x ed.). https//:xxxxx 

References

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. (2017). National

          safety and quality health service standards (2nd ed.).

          https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/National

          -Safety-and-Quality-Health-Service-Standards-second-edition.pdf 

In-text  
First citation (example):

In accordance to the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care’s (ACSQHC, 2017) National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards (NSQHS Standards) practitioners should ...

Subsequent citation (example): The NSQHS Standards (ACSQHC, 2017) state ...
Specific standards citation (example): As per standard 4.2 (ACSQHC, 2017) ...
StatPearls
Format

Chapter Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of chapter. In StatPearls.

          StatPearls Publishing. http://xxxxx

References - example

Singh, S. & McKintosh, R. (2020, July 10). Adenosine. In StatPearls. StatPearls

          Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519049/

In-text - example  
Parenthetical citations: … (Singh & McKintosh, 2020).
Narrative citations: Singh and McKintosh (2020) …


UpToDate article

Format

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. UpToDate. Retrieved Month

          Day, Year, from https://xxxxx 

References - example

Wexler, D. J., Nathan, D. M., & Mulder, J. E. (2020). Initial management of

          hyperglycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. UpToDate. Retrieved

          February 2, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/initial-

          management-of-hyperglycemia-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus 

In-text - example  
Parenthetical citations: ... (Wexler et al., 2020).
Narrative citations: Wexler et al. (2020) ...
Notes
Articles in the UpToDate database are available only in that database.
 Include a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and versions of the page are not archived.
More information
APA Style - Clinical Practice References 
Section 10.1.14 of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition" (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 319).