APA

Accessibility links

Visit the official APA Style website for more information about the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.

Online journals and periodicals

Journal - one author

In-text reference

For in-text citations, only surnames are used.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Nickel, 2004).  “…” (Nickel, 2004, p. 20).
 Nickel (2004) argues …  Nickel (2004) argues “…” (p. 20).
Reference list

Reference list entries must be in alphabetical order of the first author's surnames, and formatted with lines double-spaced and a hanging indent for 2nd and subsequent lines, as illustrated. In addition, include the digital object identifier (doi), if it has one; if no doi, include the URL in this format: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Article Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title in Italics and Maximal       

            Capitalisation, Volume number in italics(Issue number if applicable in brackets), page

            numbers. either doi or Retrieved from URL address

Nickel, M. (2004). Professional boundaries: The dilemma of dual & multiple relationships in

           rural clinical practice. Counselling and Clinical Psychology Journal1(1), 17-22. Retrieved

           from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/

Journal - two authors

In-text reference

The ampersand '&' is used between authors inside the in-text citation bracket; 'and' is always used outside the bracket.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Jones & Tukey, 2000). “…” (Jones & Tukey, 2000, p. 412).
Jones and Tukey (2000) report … Jones and Tukey (2000) report “...” (p. 412).
Reference list

Jones, L. V., & Tukey, J. W. (2000). A sensible formulation of the significance 

        test. Psychological Methods, 5, 411-414. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.5.4.411

Journal - three to five authors

In-text reference

Cite all authors the first time; thereafter, use the surname of the first author then 'et al.' (meaning ‘and others’).

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

... (Mildenberger, Eichenberg, & Martin, 2002). “…” (Mildenberger, Eichenberg, & Martin, 2002, p. 921).
Mildenberger et al. (2002) define the concept as ... Mildenberger et al. (2002) define the concept as “...” (p. 921).
Reference list

Mildenberger, P., Eichenberg, M., & Martin, E. (2002). Introduction to the DICOM

          standard. European Radiology, 12, 920-927. doi:10.1007/s003300101100

Journal - six or more authors

In-text reference

Use 'et al.' after the first author always.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

… (Picton et al., 2000). “…” (Picton et al., 2000, p. 130).
Picton et al. (2000) report … Picton et al. (2000) report “…” (p. 130).
Reference list

When there are more than seven authors, list the first six, then an ellipsis (…), then the last author.

Picton, T. W., Benton, S., Berg, P., Donchin, E., Hillyard, S. A., Johnson, R.

        J. … Taylor, M. J. (2000). Guidelines for using human event-related potentials

        to study cognition: Recording standards and publication criteria. Psychophysiology, 

        37(2), 127-152. Retrieved from https://usc-edu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/

Books

Book - one author

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
… (Greetham, 2013). “…” (Greetham, 2013, p. 10).
Bandura (1977) found … Bandura (1977) found “…” (p. 10).
Reference list

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Greetham, B. (2013). How to write better essays. (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Book - two authors

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
… (Page & Stritzke, 2015) "…" (Page & Stritzke, 2015, p. 23)
Page and Stritzke (2015) state that … Page and Stritzke (2015) suggest that "…" (p. 23)
Reference list

Page, A. C., & Stritzke, W. G. K. (2015). Clinical psychology for trainees: Foundations of science-

        informed practice (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Book - three to five authors

In-text reference

Cite all authors the first time; thereafter, use the surname of the first author then 'et al.' (meaning ‘and others’).

Paraphrase
Direct Quote
... (Ranzijn, McConnochie, & Nolan, 2009) "..." (Ranzijn, McConnochie, & Nolan, 2009, p. 6)
Ranzijn et al. (2009) consider ... Ranzijn et al. (2009) propose that "..." (p. 6)
Reference list

Ranzijn, R., McConnochie, K., & Nolan, W. (2009). Psychology and Indigenous Australians:

        Foundations of cultural competence. South Yarra, Vic: Palgrave Macmillan.

Book - six or more authors

In-text reference

Use 'et al.' after the first author always.

Paraphrase
Direct Quote
Nel et al. (2012) consider ... Further, Nel et al. (2012) state "..." (p. 13)
It is quite likely that ... (Nel et al., 2002) However, "..." (Nel et al., 2002, p. 13)
Reference list

When there are more than seven authors, list the first six, then an ellipsis (…), then the last author.

Nel, P., du Plessis, A., Fazey, M., Erwee, R., Pillay, S., Mackinnon, B. H., ... Millet, B. (2012).

        Human resource management in Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford

        University Press.

Book - electronic book

In-text Reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
… (Plante, 2013). “…” (Plante, 2013, p. 33).
Plante (2013) suggests … Plante (2013) defines … as “…” (p. 33).
Reference list

Plante, T. G. (2013). Abnormal psychology across the ages. Retrieved from

        http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/ebookviewer/ebook/ZTAwMHh3d19fNjM4MjI5X19BTg2?

        sid=fe451120-bfbc-452a-b718-95991b73546a@sessionmgr115&vid=4&format=EB&rid=40

Book - edited book

In-text reference

 (Editor’s collection not attributed to individual chapter authorship)

Paraphrase
Direct Quote
… (Kasdorf, 2003). “…” (Kasdorf, 2003, p. 12).
Kasdorf (2003) maintains … Kasdorf (2003) maintains “…” (p. 12).
Reference list

Kasdorf, W. E. (Ed.). (2003). The Columbia guide to digital publishing. New York, NY: Columbia

        University Press.

Book - chapter in edited book

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
… (Haybron, 2008). Haybron (2008) emphasises …
"…” (Haybron, 2008, p. 21).  Haybron (2008) emphasises “…” (p. 21).
Reference list

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid, & R. J.

        Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford   

        Press.

Book - citation from secondary source

In-text reference

Avoid unless the primary (original) source is not available (e.g. out of print)

Paraphrase
Direct Quote
… (Culver, as cited in Jones, 2009). “…” (Culver, as cited in Jones, 2009, p. 21).
Culver (as cited in Jones, 2009) adds … Culver (as cited in Jones, 2009) adds “…” (p. 21)
Reference list

Jones, J. (2009). Scholarly writing tips. Minneapolis, MN: Publishing House.

Online sources

Website

In-text reference

For corporate or government authors with long titles, introduce and then use the initialism/acronym. Note the use of square brackets inside the in-text citation.

Paraphrase
Direct Quote

First citation

… (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013).

or

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) contends …

First citation

"…" (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013, p. 2).

or

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013, p. 2) contends "…"

Subsequent citations

… (WHO, 2013).

or

WHO (2013) found …

Subsequent citations

"…" (WHO, 2013, p. 2).

or

WHO (2013, p. 2) found that "…"

Reference list

World Health Organization (WHO). (2013). Diabetes (Factsheet No. 312). Retrieved from

        http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/

Conference Paper

In-text reference
Paraphrase
Direct Quote
… (Taylor, 2006). “…” (Taylor, 2006, p.10).
Taylor (2006) asserts … Taylor (2006) asserts “…” (p. 10).
Reference list

Taylor, J. A. (2006). Assessment: A tool for development and engagement in the first year of

        university study. Paper presented at the Engaging Students: 9th Pacific Rim in Higher

        Education (FYHE) Conference, Griffith University. Retrieved from

        http://www.fyhe.com.au/past_papers/2006/Papers/Taylor.pdf

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