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General information

Referencing involves acknowledging the sources of information used in academic writing. Referencing every time you use evidence, ideas, data or images from sources gives credibility to your work because you demonstrate how your interpretations fit into the field of knowledge about which you are writing. Referencing also enables you to give credit to your sources and avoid plagiarism.

Glossary

Source

‘Source’ is the term used in this guide for the location, or source, of ideas or evidence. Examples of sources are books, articles, websites, legislation, live performances, art works, tables and figures. Referencing rules vary to suit each type of source.

In-text citation and reference list

In academic writing, you need to reference each source both in text and in a reference list.

In-text references appear as part of sentences and are limited to author surname (or organisation name) and year of publication; however, in-text citations for direct quotes include author and year and page number. You can mix author first or information first in-text citations.

Author first in-text citation

The author name is given before the information.

Bigby (2003, p. 2) defines culture as ‘a shared system of values, beliefs, and learned patterns of behaviour’.

Information first in-text citation

The information is given before the author name.

Culture is shaped by context and interaction (Bigby 2003).

In-text citations are a short form, directing the reader to the reference list.

A reference list appears at the end of an academic text and includes the full publication details of all sources cited in text.

Reference list and bibliography

A bibliography acknowledges all sources of information consulted on the topic, whether or not cited in text. A reference list contains details of only those sources cited in text. In most assignments, you will be required to supply a reference list, not a bibliography.

Reference and citation

These two words are often used interchangeably. In this guide, ‘citation’ means an individual occasion of referring to a source, either in text or in the reference list.

Quote

Quotes are the exact words taken from any published or unpublished material. It is conventional to use very few direct quotes; less than 10% of your total word count is a useful guideline. An in-text citation and a reference list entry are required.

If you are quoting a full sentence, use a capital letter at the beginning of the quote. For example: Anderson’s (Wullschlager ed. 2004, p. 37) character blusters, ‘Tell me right now what you want [the tinderbox] for’.

Paraphrase

A paraphrase is your wording of any information you use from a source. An in-text citation and a reference list entry are required.

Synthesis

Synthesis is your wording of any information you combine from two or more sources. In-text citations and reference list entries are required.

Summary

A summary is your wording of the main points in a source. No detail or supporting data is included, unless required for clarity. An in-text citation and a reference list entry are required.

DOI

A ‘Digital Object Indicator’, is a number unique to a particular online academic article. The doi can be found in the database storing the article or on the front page of the article. All doi numbers begin with 10. Do not include information (e.g. www. or http) given before the number 10. No space after the colon (doi:10.XXX). No viewed date is required. There is no full stop at the end of the doi number.

URL

A ‘Uniform Resource Locator’, is used for online sources only if there is no doi number. Viewed day month year (the date you accessed the article) is required with a URL. There is no full stop at end of the URL.

Plagiarism

USC Student Academic Misconduct - Procedures defines plagiarism as ‘presenting the thoughts, words, phrases or works of another as one's own’ by:

  • referring to someone else's work, ideas or theories as your own by not acknowledging the source/authors
  • using someone else’s original words without placing them in inverted commas
  • writing words that are almost the same as the original article, lecture, text or journal, even if you have acknowledged the source

Using evidence appropriately is an essential skill at university.

Can I express my own opinion?

Everything that is not cited in text and detailed in your reference list is your own work. Any critical claims you make, any phrases you use to link ideas and any evaluative comments, conclusions or suggestions you make, are created by you.

Abbreviations common in citations
ch. chapter n.p. no page number
chor. choreographer p., pp. page, pages
dir. director para., paras paragraph, paragraphs
ed., eds editor, editors pers. comm. personal communication
edn edition sic thus, so (as in the original)
et al. and others s., ss. section, sections
fig., figs figure, figures r., rr. regulation, regulations
n.d. no date vol., vols volume, volumes
no. number    
Harvard Handbook and Quick Guide

Harvard Handbook (PDF 1.6MB)

Harvard Quick Guide (PDF 287KB)

Journals

Print Journal article

In-text reference

Print-only academic journals are now rare, so you are unlikely to find them on the shelves in the library. Most academic journals are now also (or only) available online.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Hammill and Awhina (2007) comment that one of the primary objectives of offering generic study skills programs to students is to familiarise those students with the basic expectations of academic writing. For O’Shea (2007, p. 47), clarification about ‘enrolment procedures, financial requirements’ and ‘timetabling’ is required.

One of the primary objectives of offering generic study skills programs to students is to familiarise those students with the basic expectations of academic writing (Hammill & Awhina 2007).

Not understanding some institutional expectations leads to confusion and stress in some students when they first begin university. Clarification about ‘enrolment procedures, financial requirements’ and ‘timetabling’ is required (O’Shea 2007, p. 47).
Reference list

Article Author Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Article title in single quotation marks with no italics and minimal capitalisation’, Journal Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, volume number if available, issue number if available, article page range.

Hammill, J & Awhina, T 2007, ‘Linking study skills courses and content: a joint venture between Student Services and Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences’, Journal of Australia and New Zealand Student Services, no. 29, pp. 3-21.

O’Shea, S 2007, ‘Well, I got here... but what happens next? – Exploring the early narratives of first year female students who are first in the family to attend university’, Journal of the Australian and New Zealand Student Services Association, no. 29, pp. 36-51.

This journal produces issues but not volumes, so only the issue number can be cited.

Online journal article

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

According to Chanock, D’Cruz and Bisset (2009) proficiency in English is a high priority. Chanock, D’Cruz and Bisset (2009, p. A2) reported that universities ‘prioritise a good command of formal written English as an attribute of their graduates’.

Hofstede’s multidimensional cultural model demonstrates that culture influences organisational behaviour (Minkov & Hofstede 2011)

‘Universities prioritise a good command of formal written English as an attribute of their graduates’ (Chanock, D’Cruz & Bisset 2009, p. A2).
Reference list

Article Author Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Article title in single quotation marks with no italics and minimal capitalisation’, Journal Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, volume number if available, issue number if available, article page range, either doi or viewed day month year, URL

Chanock, K, D’Cruz, C & Bisset, D 2009, ’Would you like grammar with that?’, Journal of Academic Language and Learning, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. A1-A12, viewed 20 October 2011, http://journal.aall.org.au/index.php/jall/article/view/70/63

Minkov, M & Hofstede, G 2011, ‘The evolution of Hofstede’s doctrine’, Cross Cultural Management, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 10-20, doi:10.1108/13527601111104269

Books

Referencing guide for books

Websites and online material

Referencing guide for websites and online material

Government and agency documents

Print publications

Government or agency (organisation) documents, also called ‘grey literature’, are not academic sources, but are acceptable for most assignments. Check with your tutor.

When the author is a government department or agency (organisation), cite the department or agency as the author name. If you cite the organisation in text only once, write the full name both in text and in the reference list. No abbreviation is used.

If referring to the organisation more than once, write both the full name and abbreviation as the first citation e.g. The World Health Organization (WHO) and then use only the abbreviation for subsequent citations. If you refer to the organisation more than once in the body of a report, write both the full name and abbreviation in the executive summary or abstract (if relevant) and both the full name and abbreviation again the first time in the body.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

McMichael et al. (2002) detail the health risks associated with global warming.

McMichael et al. (2002, p. 91) found that ‘quantitative analysis of the relationship between climate and the incidence of diarrhoea has not been conducted in developed countries’.

The government has regulations regarding trade in wildlife (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts [DEWHA] 2008).

‘Trade in threatened species and Australian native wildlife’ is regulated (DEWHA 2008, p. 4).

Note that et al. is plural, so the verb should agree (‘detail’ not ‘details’).

When using brackets within brackets, use square brackets inside round brackets.

Reference list

If the publisher is the same as the author, use acronym for publisher.

Government document with author/s

Surname, Initial/s Year, Tile of publication in italics and minimal capitalisation, Publisher Name, City of publication

McMichael, AJ, Woodruff, R, Whetton, P Hennessy, K, Nicholls, N, Hales, SM Woodward, A & Kjellstrom, T 2002, Human health and climate change in Oceania: a risk assessment, Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra.

Government department as author

Government Department: subdivision (if relevant) Year, Title of publication in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. booklet (if relevant), Publisher Name, City of publication.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) 2008, Pills, plants and animals: a guide to complementary medicines trade and conservation, information booklet, DEWHA, Canberra.

If the publisher is the same as the author, use acronym for publisher.

Online publications

If there is no designated author, cite the sponsoring government department or agency (organisation) as author.

In-text referencing

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014) has predicted that by 2021 the number of older Indigenous Australians will more than double.

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014, p. 36) reports that ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life expectancy at birth for Australia is assumed to have increased by 0.3 years per year for males and 0.15 years per year for females between 2006 and 2011’.

From 2006 to 2021, the number of older Indigenous Australians (aged 55 years and above) will more than double (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2014).

 ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life expectancy at birth for Australia is assumed to have increased by 0.3 years per year for males and 0.15 years per year for females between 2006 and 2011’ (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2014, p. 36).

According to the Business Planning Framework (BPF), providing high quality and safe patient care is one vital guiding principle for nurses (Queensland Health 2016).

The Business Planning Framework (BPF) is underpinned by three principles, which include providing ‘safe and high quality patient care’ (Queensland Health 2016, p. 5).

Reference list

Author or Organisation Year, Title of web article in italics and minimal capitalisation, document type e.g. guidelines (if relevant), Publisher or Sponsor (if relevant), viewed day month year, URL

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2014, 3238.0 Experimental estimates and projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 1991-2021, viewed 21 November 2016, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3238.0

ABS catalogue number in italics as part of the title

Queensland Health 2016, Business planning framework: a tool for nursing and midwifery workload management, 5th edn, frameworks, viewed 11 December, 2017, https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0035/666908/bpf.pdf

Hint: Include the document type, for example: standards, frameworks, guidelines, fact sheets.

Standards

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Standards Australia International (2000) specifies the materials and strength requirements for roof bars.

Standards Australia International (2000, p. 3) has determined that materials must resist ‘outside temperatures between -200 °C and +600 °C’.

The materials and reinforcing requirements are clearly specified (Standards Australia International 2000).

Materials must resist ‘outside temperatures between -200 °C and +600 °C’ (Standards Australia International 2000, p. 3).

Based on statement 3 of the Code of Ethics, diverse people need to be valued by nurses (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia [NMBA] 2008).

First citation (use full name)

The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA 2008, p. 1) states that ‘Nurses value quality nursing care for all people’.

Subsequent in-text citations (use abbreviation)

The NMBA (2008, p. 1) also states that ‘Nurses value the diversity of people’.

Reference list

Organisation Year, Standard number and name in italics and minimal capitalisation, edition (when not the first) (if relevant), standards, viewed day month year, URL

Standards Australia International (SAI) 2000, AS 1235-2000 Road vehicles: roof load carriers: roof bars, 5th edn, standard, viewed 3 February 2012, http://infostore.saiglobal.com/store/Details.aspx?ProductID=21857

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) 2008, Code of ethics for nurses in Australia, standard, viewed 3 March 2017,http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/documents/default.aspx?record=WD10 %2f1352&dbid=AP&chksum=GTNolhwLC8InBn7hiEFeag%3d%3d

Hint: To get the URL for the document, right-click on the pdf link, then click on copy link address.

Hansard

Hansard is the official record of the proceedings of the Australian State and Federal parliaments and their committees. Hansard should be referenced as if in print even if viewed electronically.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Australia, House of Representatives (2017) records of the third reading show that the defence budget was hotly debated.

In a discussion on defence, member for Corio, Marles stated ‘it does not mean by any means that Labor provides the government with a blank cheque when it comes to this area of policy’ (Australia, House of Representatives 2017, p. 507).

The Shadow Minister for Defence stated Labor would not approve of unlimited spending on defence (Australia, House of Representatives 2017).

‘Queenslanders expect transparency and accountability from their candidates at every level of government’ (Queensland, Legislative Assembly 2016, p. 4860).

Reference list

Hansard documents are considered government documents, not legislation, so are listed in the main References list, not in a separate Legislation section.

Jurisdiction, Chamber Year, Parliamentary Debates, volume number (if available), page no/s (if available).

Australia, House of Representatives 2017, Parliamentary Debates, 9 February 2017, pp. 506-508.

Queensland, Legislative Assembly 2016, Parliamentary Debates, 1 December 2016, pp. 4860-4863.

If you are viewing the online version, the volume number may not be mentioned. In such circumstances, it is acceptable to instead cite the day the debate took place.

Legislative and legal material

Acts of Parliament

See also Australian Guide to Legal Citation - Third Edition 

An Act is a statute or law passed by both houses of parliament. You may choose to refer to the latest amendment date (e.g. ‘as amended 2016’) in your sentence (not in the reference, unless part of the title given in the source).

Acts of Parliament - First citation

Titles in italics and cite the jurisdiction e.g. state (Qld) or Commonwealth (Cth) either in your sentence or in the brackets.

In-text reference

For in-text citations, include the title of legislation in italics and pinpoint the section using numbers, letters and decimal points.

First citation: 

Section 61.2 of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (Qld) discusses the specific requirements and compliance with procedures associated with the election of WHS officers.

Subsequent citations:

Specifically, in s.66.2 of the Queensland Work Health and Safety Act, mention is made of the immunity of officers carrying out their duties in good faith.

‘Section’ is abbreviated to ‘s.’, ‘sections’ is abbreviated to ‘ss.’.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

The Commonwealth A New Tax System (Pay as You Go) Act 1999, amended 2010, covers income tax.

The Queensland Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 aims to promote equality of opportunity for everyone by protecting them from unfair discrimination in certain areas of activity, including work, education and accommodation’ (2.1.6.1).

The Queensland Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender.

The Australian Capital Territory Mental Health Act 2015 states that a mental disorder ‘does not include a condition that is a mental illness’ (9.b).

Income tax collection is highly regulated (A New Tax System [Pay as You Go] Act 1999 [Cth]).

‘A person must not, by a public act, knowingly or recklessly incite hatred’ (Queensland Anti- Discrimination Act 1991, 5A.131A.1).
Discrimination is illegal in Queensland (Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 [Qld]).

A mental disorder ‘does not include a condition that is a mental illness’ (Mental Health Act 2015 [ACT], 9.b).

Insert a comma between title and pinpointing.

When using brackets within brackets, use square brackets inside round brackets.

Reference list

List Acts alphabetically in a separate section of your reference list labelled Legislation. Legislation should be referenced as if in print even if viewed electronically. Titles of Acts in italics.

Legislation
A New Tax System (Pay as You Go) Act 1999 (Cth)
Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld)
Mental Health Act 2015 (ACT)

Acts of Parliament - Subsequent citation

Short title, italics, no jurisdiction (unless needed for clarity e.g. if comparing two Acts with similar titles), no year, pinpoint according to the divisions used in the source. No spaces before or after decimal points.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

The Pay as You Go Act provides for the collection of income tax.

The Anti-Discrimination Act aims to promote equality of opportunity for everyone by protecting them from unfair discrimination in certain areas of activity, including work, education and accommodation’ (2.1.6.1).

The Anti-Discrimination Act prohibits discrimination.

The Mental Health Act, states that a mental disorder ‘does not include a condition that is a mental illness’ (9.b).

Income tax collection is highly regulated (Pay as You Go).

Unfair discrimination can occur in ‘work, education and accommodation’ (Anti-Discrimination Act, 2.1.6.1).

Discrimination is illegal in Queensland (Anti-Discrimination Act).

Mental illness means ‘a condition that seriously impairs (either temporarily or permanently) the mental functioning of a person’ (Mental Health Act, 10).

Insert a comma between title and pinpointing.

Reference list

List Acts alphabetically in a separate section of your reference list labelled Legislation. Legislation should be referenced as if in print even if viewed electronically. Titles of Acts in italics.

Legislation
A New Tax System (Pay as You Go) Act 1999 (Cth)
Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld)
Mental Health Act 2015 (ACT)

Newspapers and magazines

Newspapers and magazines are not academic sources but may be analysed as case studies (check with your tutor).

Print newspaper - Author known

In-text referencing

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Denholm (2011, p. 8) reports that the move caused controversy.

Denholm (2011, p. 8) reports that ‘they have agreed to keep the mill open for three to five years to allow the industry time to adapt’.

The move was controversial (Denholm 2011).

It has been ‘agreed to keep the mill open for three to five years to allow the industry time to adapt’ (Denholm 2011, p. 8).
Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Article title in single quotation marks with no italics and minimal capitalisation’, Newspaper Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, day and month of publication, page/s.

Denholm, M 2011, ‘Anti-logger’s mill promotion stuns Tasmanian timber industry’, Weekend Australian, 18 July, p. 8.

Print newspaper - Author unknown

In-text referencing

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

As reported in ‘It lit up the beach’ (2016), a meteor struck the coast last night. As reported in ‘It lit up the beach’ (2016, p. 3) the light was ‘extremely bright’.

A meteor landed on the coast last night (‘It lit up the beach’ 2016).

‘There was an extremely bright flash of light’ (‘It lit up the beach’ 2016, p. 3).

Reference list

‘Article title in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’ Year, Newspaper Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, day and month of publication, page/s.

‘It lit up the beach: reports of large meteor crash off Queensland coast’ 2016, Sunshine Coast Daily, 27 September, p. 3.

Online newspaper - Author known

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

According to a report in The Guardian (Davidson 2016), Australia’s reputation is in tatters.

Davidson (2016, n.p.) reports a UN envoy as saying ‘Australia’s recent immigration policies had eroded human rights and tarnished the country’s reputation’.

Australia’s reputation is in tatters, according to a report in The Guardian (Davidson 2016).

‘Hate speech and xenophobia had increased in Australia’ (Davidson 2016, n.p.).

For direct quotes: If no page number in original, use n.p. (no space between n. and p.).

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Article title in single quotation marks with no italics and minimal capitalisation’, Newspaper Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, day and month of publication, number or page range if available, viewed day month year, URL

Davidson, H 2016, ‘Australia’s immigration policies have promoted xenophobia: UN expert’, The Guardian, 18 November, viewed 18 November 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/australia- news/2016/nov/18/australias-immigration-policies-have-promoted-xenophobia-un-expert

Online newspaper - Author unknown

If the author of a news story is not known, the title of the news story (shortened if necessary) is cited in single quotation marks in place of the author both in text and in the reference list.

For direct quotes: If no page number in original, use n.p. (no space between n. and p.).

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

‘Slovenia adds water to constitution as fundamental right for all’ (2016) reports on a change in policy. ‘Slovenia adds water to constitution as fundamental right for all’ (2016, n.p.) reported on water.

Drinking water is protected (‘Slovenia adds water to constitution as fundamental right for all’ 2016).

We should protect water ‘(‘Slovenia adds water to constitution as fundamental right for all’ 2016, n.p.).

Reference list

‘Article title in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’ Year, Newspaper Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, day and month of publication, page/s if available, viewed day month year, URL

‘Slovenia adds water to constitution as fundamental right for all’ 2016, The Guardian, 18 November, viewed 18 November 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/environment /2016/nov/18/slovenia-adds-water-to-constitution-as-fundamental-right-for-all

Print magazine - Author known

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Beale (2004) describes the situation in colourful terms.

Beale (2004, p. 30) describes the situation as ‘alarming’.

The situation requires immediate attention (Beale 2004).

An eyewitness said the situation was ‘alarming’ (Beale 2004, p. 30).

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Article title in single quotation marks with no italics and minimal capitalisation’, Magazine Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, day and month or volume number if available, issue number if available, article page range.

Beale, B 2004, ‘Dam busted’, Bulletin, 12 July, p. 30.

Print magazine - Author unknown

In-text reference

If the author of a magazine article is not known, the title of the magazine article in single quotation marks (shortened if necessary) is cited in place of the author both in the in-text reference and in the reference list.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

It was recently reported (‘Ai WeiWei crosses red line again’ 2016) that the installation was cancelled by the Chinese government.

According to ‘Ai WeiWei crosses red line again’ (2016, p. 31) the Chinese government ‘did not explain’ its decision.

The installation was cancelled by the Chinese government (‘Ai WeiWei crosses red line again’ 2016).

The Chinese government ‘did not explain’ its decision (Ai WeiWei crosses red line again’ 2016, p. 31).

Reference list

‘Article title in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’ Year, Magazine Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, day and month or volume number if available, issue number if available, article page range.

‘Ai WeiWei crosses red line again’ 2016, Art Asia Pacific, no. 101, pp. 31-32.

Insert in reference list disregarding ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ beginning the title.

Online magazine - Author known

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

In his article, Galak (2014) discusses the Greens’ protest against the latest shark culling.

Smith (2016, n.p.) asserts ‘free-market capitalism and prosperity follow’.

The Greens protested against the latest shark culling in Western Australia (Galak 2014).

‘Free-market capitalism and prosperity follow’ (Smith 2016, n.p.).

For direct quotes: If no page number in original, use n.p. (no space between n. and p.).

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Article title in single quotation marks with no italics and minimal capitalisation’, Magazine Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, day and Month of publication, viewed day month year, URL

Galak, M 2014, ‘If only sharks had a taste for greenies’, Quadrant Online, 30 January, viewed 31 January, 2014, http://quadrant.org.au/opinion/doomed-planet/2014/01/sharks-taste-greenies/

Smith, P 2016, ‘Trump’s brazen insight’, Quadrant Online, 18 November, viewed 18 November 2016, https://quadrant.org.au/opinion/qed/2016/11/trumps-brazen-insight/

Online magazine - Author unknown

If the author of a magazine article is not known, the title of the magazine article in single quotation marks (shortened if necessary) is cited in place of the author both in the in-text reference and in the reference list.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

‘Ace Plays Opera’ (2016) reports on a project involving young musicians.

‘Ace plays opera’ (2016, n.p.) reported praise for the ‘blend of … interpretations’.

The project involved young musicians (‘Ace plays opera’ 2016).

The ‘blend of … interpretations’ was praised (‘Ace plays opera’ 2016, n.p.).

Reference list

‘Article title in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’ Year, Magazine Title in Italics and Maximal Capitalisation, day and Month of publication, viewed day month year, URL

‘Ace plays opera: a groundbreaking concert for guitar and orchestra’ 2016, Fusion: Global Art, Words, & Music, 29 November, viewed 8 December 2016, http://www.fusionmagazine.org/ace-plays-opera/#3

Insert in reference list disregarding ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ beginning the title.

Other citing situations

Synthesising ideas or evidence from more than one source

Synthesis is your wording of ideas or evidence you combine from two or more sources. You can synthesise ideas from sources of different types (e.g. book, online article, government document). All sources must be cited in text, separated by a semi-colon and presented in alphabetical order.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Several scholars (Engleberg 2007; Rothwell 2004) have found that groups may avoid constructively arguing opposing ideas as they generally want to maintain harmony.

‘Gatekeepers’ are key figures within a group (Rothwell 2004, p. 216; Katz 1982, p. 82)

 
Groups may avoid constructively arguing opposing ideas as they generally want to maintain harmony (Engleberg 2007; Rothwell 2004).

Synthesising can be quite complex, as in the example below:

Among the many issues in cross-cultural or cross-national research (Adler 1983; Chan & Rossiter 2003; Sekaran 1983), perhaps the most important is that of data equivalence (Berry 1980; Craig & Douglas 2000; Kumar 2000; Mullen 1995; Salzberger, Sinkovics & Schlegelmilch 1999).

Source: Rogers, MM, Peterson, RA & Albaum, G 2013, ‘Measuring business related ethicality globally: cultural emic or etic?’, International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-14, viewed 7 May 2014, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.usc.edu.au:2048/docview/1429243337?accountid=28745

Reference list

Engleberg, IN 2007, Working in groups: communication principles and strategies, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Katz, R 1982, ‘The effects of group longevity on project communication and performance’, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 81-104, viewed 10 February 2017, http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2392547.pdf

Rogers, MM, Peterson, RA & Albaum, G 2013, ‘Measuring business related ethicality globally: cultural emic or etic?’, International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-14, viewed 7 May 2014, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.usc.edu.au: 2048/docview/1429243337?accountid=28745

Rothwell, JD 2004, In mixed company: communicating in small groups and teams, Thompson/Wadsworth, Belmont.

Citations in a source from another source

In-text reference

It is best practice to find the original sources and their reference details. If you do need to use the work of one author as cited in another author’s work (for example, if the original is out of print), provide both authors’ names in the text. In the reference list, include only the source you have used.

Cite both authors’ names in text. The publication year of the earlier source is not cited.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

According to Rubin (cited in Redman 2006) paragraphs focus on one topic and each sentence should relate to that topic.

Fahey (cited in Frost 2008, p. 69) provides evidence that ‘wages for unskilled work remained lower than those in the capital cities’.

Paragraphs focus on one topic and each sentence should relate to that topic (Rubin, cited in Redman 2006).

For Oshima and Hogue (cited in Bretag, Crossman & Bordia 2007), a paraphrase expresses the same meaning as the original text but uses different words.

The value placed on private property by pastoralists ‘clashed with the nomadic, customary nature of Aboriginal society and this discord often erupted in violence’ (Reynolds, cited in Frost 2008, p. 63).
A paraphrase expresses the same meaning as the original text but uses different words (Oshima & Hogue, cited in Bretag, Crossman & Bordia 2007).
Reference list

In the reference list, include only the source you have used.

Bretag, T, Crossman, J & Bordia, S 2007, Communication skills for international students in business, McGraw-Hill Irwin, Boston.

Frost, L 2008, ‘Across the great divide: the economy of the inland corridor’, in A Mayne (ed.), Beyond the black stump: histories of outback Australia, Wakefield Press, Kent Town.

Redman, P 2006, Good essay writing, 3rd edn, Sage, London.

More than one source by the same author - different years

In-text reference

To refer at one point in the text to more than one work by the same author but published in different years.

Separate the citations with a semi-colon. Order chronologically by date of publication.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Cottrell (2005; 2008) describes critical thinking in detail. For Cottrell (2005, p. 5; 2008, p. 11), critical thinking is ‘a skill that can be learned’.

Critical thinking is elucidated in some detail (Cottrell 2005; 2008).

Critical thinking can be defined as ‘a skill that can be learned’ (Cottrell 2005, p. 5; 2008, p. 11).
Reference list

Order chronologically by date of publication.

Cottrell, S 2005, Critical thinking: developing effective analysis and argument, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Cottrell, S 2008, The study skills handbook, 3rd edn, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

More than one source by the same author - same year

In-text reference

Separate the citations with a semi-colon.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Blainey (2003a; 2003b) describes life in Melbourne for the early settlers.  At this time ‘there were no bridges’ (Blainey 2003b, p. 39) to cross the rivers in countryside Victoria, even Melbourne’s city streets were ‘still rough and dimly lit’ (Blainey 2003a, p. 22).

Daily life was challenging (Blainey 2003a; 2003b).

Reference list

Establish the order based on alphabetical order of the title, disregarding ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ beginning the title. Attach a lower case letter of the alphabet to the publication date. Retain this order for in-text citations (i.e. even if, for example, information from 2003b appears before information from 2003a).

Blainey, G 2003a, Black kettle and full moon: daily life in a vanished Australia, Penguin/Viking, Camberwell.

Blainey, G 2003b, A game of our own: the origins of football, Black Inc., Melbourne.

Theses - also called dissertations
In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

White (2013) discusses several factors that influence lifelong learners. Clark (2011, p. 183) characterises this polymer as a molecular ‘charm bracelet’.
Several factors influence lifelong learners (White 2013). This polymer has been characterised as a molecular ‘charm bracelet’ (Clark 2011, p. 183).
Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Title in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’, masters or doctoral thesis, University, City, viewed day month year (if relevant), URL (if relevant)

Clark, PG 2011, ‘Synthesis of interlocked molecules by olefin metathesis’, doctoral thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, viewed 2 December 2013, http://thesis.library.caltech.edu/5981/1/Paul_Clark_PhD_Thesis_8-10-2010.pdf

White, RD 2013, ‘What makes an Australian a lifelong learner?’, doctoral thesis, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, viewed 2 December 2013, http://research.usc.edu.au/vital/access/manager/Repository/usc:10840?queryType=vitalDismax&sort=ss_dateNormalized%5C&query=thesis&f0=sm_type%3A%22Thesis+%28PhD%29%22

Course readers

A course reader is a collection of sources. Follow the relevant rules for each source you use from the reader. For example, if you are referencing a journal article in your course reader, follow the reference rules for journal articles; if it is a book chapter, follow the rules for a book chapter.

However, if you are specifically requested to reference the course reader, use the following example as a guide.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Morgan (2006) claims that the events have been obscured.

Morgan (2006, p. 40) maintains that ‘intractable conflict’.

The damage done has been obscured (Morgan 2006).

Circumstances for Aboriginal people in rural NSW featured ‘intractable conflict’ (Morgan 2006, p. 40).

Reference list

Morgan, G 2006, ‘Memory and marginalisation: aboriginality and education in the assimilation era’, Australian Journal of Education, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 40-9, in L Aberdeen (ed.), SCS130 Introduction to Indigenous Australia Course 2011, course reader, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs.

Unpublished manuscripts

Unpublished material includes unpublished papers presented at meetings as well as unpublished manuscripts of all kinds.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Smythe (1990) found that most businesses needed to invest in software.

Maladay (1925, n.p.) recollects that ‘Glenbury was a peaceful place’.

Most local businesses need to invest in software (Smythe 1990).

‘Glenbury was a peaceful place’ (Maladay 1925, n.p.).

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Title in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’, type of source, Source Host if available, City, viewed day month year and URL (if relevant)

Maladay, G 1925, ‘My recollections of Glenbury’, manuscript in possession of FD Maladay, Toowoomba.

Smythe, J 1990, ‘A study of the software requirements of small business in the Maryborough district’, Associate Diploma of Business Project, Maryborough College of TAFE, Maryborough.

Pamphlets - Brochures - Posters - Media Releases - Fact Sheets - Newsletters

These are not academic sources but may be analysed as case studies (check with your tutor).

Print

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

The Queensland Government (2016) advises that childcare may be refused.

Queensland Health (2016, n.p.) claims ‘no increased risk’ for women vaccinated during pregnancy.
The Commission focuses on mediation (Australian Human Rights Commission 2016).

‘The Commission ‘must investigate’ (Australian Human Rights Commission 2016, n.p.).

If there are no page numbers in original, use n.p. (no space between n. and p.).

Reference list

Author Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. poster, Publisher Name, City of publication.

Queensland Government n.d., Flu and you, poster, Queensland Government, Brisbane.


University of the Sunshine Coast n.d., Interested in Honours, poster, USC, Maroochydore.

If no date, use n.d. If publisher of a printed poster is the same as the author, use the acronym or abbreviation for the publisher.  

Online

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

The Queensland Government (2016) advises that childcare may be refused.

Queensland Health (2016, n.p.) claims ‘no increased risk’ for women vaccinated during pregnancy.
The Commission focuses on mediation (Australian Human Rights Commission 2016).

‘The Commission ‘must investigate’ (Australian Human Rights Commission 2016, n.p.).

If there are no page numbers in original, use n.p. (no space between n. and p.).

Reference list

Author Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. poster, viewed day month year, URL

Australian Human Rights Commission 2016, Racial discrimination complaints, media release, 7 November, viewed 22 November 2016, https://www.humanrights.gov.au/news/media- releases/racial-discrimination-complaints http://www.hreoc.gov.au/about/media/media_releases/2011/8_11.html

New South Wales Government, Health n.d., No smoking near entrance to or exits from public buildings (the 4 metre law), fact sheet, viewed 8 December 2016, http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/tobacco/Factsheets/4-metre-law.pdf

Queensland Government 2016, Whooping cough vaccination matters, brochure, viewed 22 November 2016, https://www.health.qld.gov.au/publications/portal/immunisation/whooping_cough_dl_6pps_no_bleed_hr.pdf

State of Victoria 2016, Immunisation newsletter, newsletter, viewed 8 December 2016, https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/email%20campaign/messages/2016/11/01t025729/immunisation%2 0newsletter%20-%20december%202016/message%20root Unpublished materials

If no date, use n.d. If publisher of a printed poster is the same as the author, use the acronym or abbreviation for the publisher.  

Films - Videos - Television - Radio

Films, videos, television and radio are not academic sources but may be analysed as case studies (check with your tutor).

In-text reference

If there is no director or author, cite the title.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Murnau’s (dir. 1922) silent film, Nosferatu, remains a powerful and iconic horror film. ‘The Anthropocene: a new age of humans’ (2016, sec. 6) discusses a ‘new geological epoch’.

Nosferatu employs a range of cinematic effects manipulating the sense of time (Murnau dir. 1922).

There is debate regarding whether ‘a new geological epoch’ has begun (‘The Anthropocene: a new age of humans’ 2016, sec. 6).

Reference list
Film or video

Director Name (dir.) Year, Title of motion picture in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. DVD, Publisher Name, City of publication.

Murnau, FW (dir.) 1922, Nosferatu, DVD, Eureka Video, London.

Television or radio episode

‘Episode title in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’ (if available), Title in italics Year, format e.g. television program, radio program or motion picture, Publisher or Broadcaster Name, City of publication or broadcast, day month of broadcast (if relevant), viewed day month year (if relevant), URL (if relevant)

‘The Anthropocene: a new age of humans’, Catalyst 2016, television program, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Brisbane, 15 November, viewed 22 November 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/4574615.htm

Works of art - viewed in person
In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Pollock’s (1952) painting is textually dense and layered.  

Not applicable

 

The sculpture is reminiscent of work by Michelangelo (Rodin 1903).

Reference list

Author Year, Title of work of art in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. painting or sculpture, Location or Gallery in Maximal Capitalisation, City, viewed day month year.

Pollock, J 1952, Blue poles, painting, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, viewed 18 March 2011.

Rodin, A 1903, The thinker, sculpture, Museé Rodin, Paris, viewed 12 August 2016.

Live performances and plays

Citations of live performances include the director (dir.) as author.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Bell (dir. 2011) incorporated gymnastic activity.

 

Not applicable. For quotes, cite the script (see Play, short story or poem section).

 
The performance by Max Gillies was energetic (Bell dir. 2011).
Reference list

Director Surname, Initial/s (dir.) Year, Title of performance in italics and minimal capitalisation, by Initial/s Surname, format e.g. theatre performance, performance date range, Theatre Company Name, Name of Theatre, Building Housing the Theatre (if relevant), City, viewed day month year.

Bell, J (dir.) 2011, Much ado about nothing, by W Shakespeare, theatre performance, 8 April-14 May 2011, Bell Shakespeare Company, Drama Theatre, Sydney Opera House, Sydney, viewed 10 April 2011.


Dance performances
Citations for live performances include the choreographer (chor.) as author.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Page (chor. 2009) demonstrated sophisticated fluidity of choreography.

Not applicable.

The Matthina opening night choreography was varied and inspired (Page chor. 2009).
Reference list

Choreographer Surname, Initial/s (chor.) Year, Title of dance in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. dance performance, performance date range, Title of Dance Company, Name of Theatre, Building Housing Theatre (if relevant), City, viewed day month year.

Page, S (chor.) 2009, Matthina, dance performance, 29 May-7 June 2009, Bangarra Dance Theatre, Playhouse, Queensland Performing Arts Centre, Brisbane, viewed 29 May 2009.

Music scores
In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Sculthorpe’s (1982) Mountains was composed for the Sydney International Piano Competition.

Mountains Piano Sheet Music (Sculthorpe 1981)

Jagged melodic phrases in the upper register symbolise the peaks of mountains (Sculthorpe 1982).

Figure 1 Mountains

Source: Sculthorpe 1981, p. 2, bars 1-18

 

Reproduce music notation as a figure. Pinpoint divisions as given in the score (e.g. page, movement, bar/s). Include online source details if citing a version of the score available online.
Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, Publisher Name, City of publication.

Online source

Sculthorpe, P 1981, Mountains, piano sheet music, viewed 19 December 2016, http://www.sheetmusicdownload.in/piano/sheets/3188/Sculthorpe_Mountains.html

Print source

Sculthorpe, P 1982, Mountains, Faber Music, London.

Plays - Short stories - Poems
In-text reference

Extended textual analysis

For extended textual analysis of a play, poem, novel, short story, etc. involving frequent in-text citations of the same text:

  1. Insert a footnote (References tab, Insert footnote) with the first in-text citation;
  2. Insert the full reference in the footnote;
  3. Add the words: All further references are to this edition of Title/‘Title’.

For subsequent quotes, cite in text the page number (for prose); Act, scene, line numbers (for plays); or verse, line numbers (for poems).

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Williamson’s (2014) play Emerald City, originally produced in 1987, is a witty commentary on contemporary urban lifestyles and values.

Williamson’s (2014) character Colin complains that ‘everything in Melbourne is flat, grey, parched and angular’ (Act 1, line 6).

Emerald City offers a witty perspective on urban lifestyles in the 1980s (Williamson 2014).

‘Everything in Melbourne is flat, grey, parched and angular’, complains Colin (Williamson 2014, Act 1, line 6).

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, Title of the play or long poem in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. ebook (if relevant), Publisher Name in maximal capitalisation and no italics, City of publication, viewed day month year (if relevant), URL (if relevant)

Williamson, D 2014, Emerald City, ebook, Currency Press, Sydney, viewed 30 November 2016, http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail/bmxlYmtfXzkxNjM0MF9fQU41?sid=9b7588be-fc57-4f0b-b42c-33a63bfc0532@sessionmgr4009&vid=0#AN=916340&db=nlebk

Short stories or poems
In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

In the poem Insomniac Angelou (n.d.) personifies sleep and blames it for being distant.

‘There are some nights when / sleep plays coy’ (Angelou n.d., lines 1 & 2).

Forward slash to indicate line break.

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s Year, ‘Title of the short story or short poem in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’, format e.g. ebook (if relevant), Publisher Name in maximal capitalisation and no italics, City of publication, viewed day month year (if relevant), URL (if relevant)

Angelou M n.d., ‘Insomniac’, poem, viewed 13 February 2017, https://www.poemhunter.com/poem/insomniac/

Play or short story or poem in anthology
In-text reference

Refer to the poem or play and its author in your sentence; title of a play or long poem is in italics; title of a short story or short poem in ‘single quotation marks and no italics’. The anthology or edition containing the play or poem is cited in brackets. Reference a play, short story or poem published in a periodical as for an article in a journal.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Shakespeare’s flustered nurse in Romeo and Juliet (Watts ed. 2000) scurries through the play.

Shakespeare’s Juliet (Watts ed. 2000, Act 2, scene 2, line 185) mourns ‘parting is such sweet sorrow’.

Coleridge’s gothic imagery in 'Kubla Khan’ (Wordsworth & Wordsworth 2001) provides texture.

Coleridge (Wordsworth & Wordsworth eds 2001, line 17) describes the tumultuous water in ’Kubla Khan’ as ‘ceaseless turmoil seething’.

The Nurse is a comic figure in Romeo and Juliet (Watts ed. 2000).

The forlorn ‘mark the coming and going / of the year of the wasp’ evokes a Prufrockian longing in the poem’s middle-aged narrator (Deane 2016, lines 17-18).

The imagery throughout ‘Kubla Khan’ is gothic (Wordsworth & Wordsworth 2001).

Alliteration and assonance are both employed to evoke tumult in ‘ceaseless turmoil seething’ in ‘Kubla Khan’ (Wordsworth & Wordsworth eds 2001, Act 2, scene 2, line 185).

Forward slash to indicate line break.

Reference list

Surname, Initial/s (ed. or eds in brackets) Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, Series title in no italics and minimal capitalisation (if relevant), edition (when not the first), volume number (if relevant), translator Initial/s Surname (if relevant), Publisher Name, City of publication, viewed day month year (if relevant), URL (if relevant)

Deane, J 2016, ‘Year of the wasp’, Meanjin, vol. 75, no. 3, p. 6, viewed 30 November 2016, http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=385216492017624;res=IELLCC

Watts, C (ed.) 2000, Romeo and Juliet, Wordsworth Classics, Wordsworth Editions, Hertfordshire.

Wordsworth, J & Wordsworth, J (eds) 2001, The Penguin book of romantic poetry, Penguin, London.

Encyclopaedias

Encyclopaedias are not academic sources.

In-text reference

If the author is not known, the title of the encyclopaedia in italics is cited in place of the author in both the in-text reference and the reference list.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

McNally (2012) surveys a range of cognitive, emotional and social reactions to kidnapping.

McNally (2012, p. 2) argues that ‘psychological first aid and critical incident stress management are the primary responses’ after a medical assessment.

There is a range of cognitive, emotional and social reactions to kidnapping (McNally 2012). ‘Psychological first aid and critical incident stress management are the primary responses’ after a medical assessment, according to McNally (2012, p. 2).
Reference list

Follow the rules for a chapter in a print or electronic book, as relevant.

McNally, VJ 2012, ‘Abduction/kidnapping’, in CR Figley (ed.), Encyclopedia of trauma: an interdisciplinary guide, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, pp. 1-3, viewed 15 November 2016, http://site.ebrary.com/lib/uscau/reader.action?docID=10682675&ppg=8

Dictionaries

Author known

Dictionaries are not academic sources.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Mandel (1991) defines key terms.

Mandel (1991, p. 283) refers to capitalism as ‘a central term’.
Key terms are clearly defined (Mandel 1991).

Capitalism is referred to as ‘a central term’ (Mandel 1991, p. 283).

Reference list

Follow the rules for a chapter in a print or electronic edited book, as relevant.

Mandel, E 1991, ‘Keynes and Marx’, in T Bottomore (ed.), Dictionary of Marxist thought, 2nd edn, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 281-3.

Entry in a dictionary - single author

Dictionaries are not academic sources.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Wortham (2010) points out that a dictionary can only provide a limited overview.

Wortham (2010, p. 20) writes that the singular ‘is far better described as a resistant after-effect found at the constituting limits of an artifactual synthetics that is itself produced by effects of différance’.

A dictionary can only provide a limited overview (Wortham 2010).

The singular ‘is far better described as a resistant after-effect found at the constituting limits of an artifactual synthetics that is itself produced by effects of différance’ (Wortham 2010, p. 20).

Reference list

Follow the rules for a print or electronic book, as relevant.

Wortham, S 2010, The Derrida dictionary, Continuum, London, viewed 1 February 2015, http://ezproxy.usc.edu.au:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scop e=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=341723

Entry in a dictionary - author unknown

Dictionaries are not academic sources.

In-text reference

If the author is not known, the title of the dictionary in italics is cited in place of the author in both the in-text reference and the reference list.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

The Macquarie dictionary (2013) definition of a gas has 17 meanings.

The Macquarie dictionary (2013, n.p.) states gas fills ‘the whole of the space in which it is contained.’

There is a range of related meanings for the term gas (The Macquarie dictionary 2013).

A gas fills ‘the whole of the space in which it is contained’ (The Macquarie dictionary 2013, n.p.).

Reference list
Print source

‘Title of entry in single quotation marks and minimal capitalisation’ year, Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia in italics and minimal capitalisation, Publisher Name, City of publication.

Online source

‘Title of entry in single quotation marks and minimal capitalisation’ year, Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia in italics and minimal capitalisation, viewed day month year, doi or URL

‘Gas’ 2013, Macquarie dictionary, viewed 15 November 2016, https://www.macquariedictionary.com.au/features/word/search/?word=gas&search_word_type=Dictionary

Personal communications
In-text reference

Personal communications refer to emails, phone conversations, letters, conversations, guest speeches or similar sources, from which the data is not recoverable. First gain permission from the person/s being referenced. Initials before the surname. Cite in text only, not in reference list.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Ms M Day confirmed by telephone on 30 July 2013 that email confirmation had been received.

In a telephone conversation held on 30 October 2008, Mr J Brown confirmed that the present site of Luke’s Newsagency was ‘once the site of the first cinema’ in the district.
Ms A Smith (2016, pers. comm. 16 August) spoke about the success of the intervention in a guest speech.

Email confirmation was received (M Day 2013, pers. comm. 30 July).

It has been confirmed that the present site of Luke’s Newsagency was ‘once the site of the first cinema’ in the district (J Brown [former student] 2008, pers. comm., 30 October).

The intervention has been successful (Ms A Smith [guest speaker] 2016, pers. comm., 16 August).

 When using brackets within brackets, use square brackets inside round brackets.

If the name of an institution needs to be included:

In an interview conducted on 28 February 2008, Mr A Cluny (Sunrise College) stated that the school had a learning centre.

The school has a learning centre (A Cluny [Sunrise College], 2008, pers. comm., 28 February).

Reference list

Personal communications are not included in a list of references, but must be cited in full in the text.

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