Websites and online material

Accessibility links

Websites and online material

Breadcrumbs

Websites

Websites are not academic sources but may be analysed as case studies (check with your tutor). Websites are rarely designed for academic or referencing purposes. If there is no designated author, cite the website owner/sponsor in place of the author. If no date is given in the source, use n.d. and if no page numbers are given in the source, use n.p.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Ballotpedia.com (n.d.) claims that Trump had hidden advantages.

Ballotpedia.com (n.d., n.p.) claims Trump’s ‘no-holds-barred campaign style’ was vital.

There is no support for a recount (Debenedetti 2016).

Debenedetti (2016, n.p.) claims ‘no push to have Clinton say anything public about the recount’.

The World Health Organization (2016) projects that air pollution will increase.

The World Health Organization (2016, p. 33) reports that ‘concentrations of air pollution are higher than the WHO guideline levels of 10 µg/m3’.

Retain source spelling for corporate author.

Reference list

Author or website owner/sponsor Year, Title of web page in italics and minimal capitalisation, viewed day month year, URL

Ballotpedia.com n.d., Presidential election (2016), viewed 29 November 2016, https://ballotpedia.org/Donald_Trump_presidential_campaign,_2016#Footnotes

Debenedetti, G 2016, Clinton team shrugs off recount effort, viewed 29 November 2016, http://www.politico.com/story/2016/11/hillary-clinton-state-recounts-reaction-jill-stein-231897

World Health Organization 2016, Ambient air pollution: a global assessment of exposure and burden of disease, viewed 17 November 2016, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/250141/1/9789241511353-eng.pdf?ua=1

Retain source spelling for corporate author.

Same website - different web pages

Each web page with a different URL requires its own reference. If the author and year are the same, differentiate citations in text and in the reference list by attaching lower case ab, etc. to the year (no space after year).

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Beyond Blue (2016a) states that knowing your emotions and what to do about them is vital. Beyond Blue (2016a, n.p.) maintains that ‘it's important to find out what's going on and what you can do about it’

Mental health exists as a continuum from good health to mental illness (Beyond Blue 2016b).

‘Mental health is at one end of the spectrum – represented by feeling good and functioning well – while mental health conditions (or mental illness) are at the other – represented by symptoms that affect people’s thoughts, feelings or behaviour’ (Beyond Blue 2016b, n.p.).
Reference list

Establish the order based on alphabetical order of the title (not according to the order they appear in the text), disregarding ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ beginning the title. Attach a lower case letter of the alphabet to the publication year. Retain this order of citations in text (i.e. even if, for example, information from 2016b appears before information from 2016a).

Beyond Blue 2016a, Brains can have a mind of their own, viewed 30 November 2016, https://www.youthbeyondblue.com/

Beyond Blue 2016b, Secondary schools and tertiary, viewed 30 November 2016, https://www.beyondblue.org.au/healthy-places/secondary-schools-and-tertiary

Online health and business databases

These are not academic sources, but may be acceptable for some assignments (check with your tutor). Articles from databases such as MIMS Online, Passport, WARC, MarketLine, Company360 and IBISWorld should be referenced as for websites. Retain the database name as given in the source.

Author known
In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Chappell and Sweeney (2016) discuss identification and use of relevant data. Chappell and Sweeney (2016, n.p.) assert this ‘gives marketers more information than ever before’.

Identification of relevant data and techniques for using it are outlined (Chappell & Sweeney 2016).

This ‘gives marketers more information than ever before’ (Chappell & Sweeney 2016, n.p.).
Reference list

Author or Database sponsor Year or year range as given in source, Title of web page in italics and minimal capitalisation, viewed day month year, URL

Chappell, M & Sweeney, J 2016, Eight steps marketers can take to get the most out of digital attribution, viewed 8 December 2016, https://www.warc.com/Content/ContentViewer.aspx?MasterContentRef=9c476aee-4e3b-42f6-ba03-0eb9c27d50c0&CID=A109584&PUB=ADMAP

Author unknown
In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

MIMS Online (2017) lists side effects of Panadol for children. According to data from IBISWorld (1999-2016, n.p.), ‘there are no major players’.

Stray cats were used in an innovative marketing campaign in Japan (WARC 2016).

The online response to the campaign ‘equated to an advertising cost of over $8.0 million’ (WARC 2016, n.p.).

Reference list

Author or Database sponsor Year or year range as given in source, Title of web page in italics and minimal capitalisation, viewed day month year, URL

IBISWorld 1999-2016, Specialist medical services in Australia, viewed 29 November 2016, http://clients1.ibisworld.com.au/reports/au/industry/default.aspx?entid=612

MIMS Online 2017, Panadol (children) liquid formulations, viewed 3 January 2017, https://www.mimsonline.com.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product Info&searchKeyword=panadol&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=282800 05_2

WARC 2016, Onomichi city: cat street view, viewed 8 December 2016, https://www.warc.com/Content/ContentViewer.aspx?MasterContentRef=187252f7-f738-4a08-bef8- 34b50f2ae053&CID=A108260&PUB=WARC-PRIZE-ASIA

Online data and tables

Online data reproduced or modified requires a citation in text and in the reference list.

In-text reference

Table number and title above the table. Citation below the table.

Table 1 Tourists to Australia (2006)

Tourists to Australia (2006)
Country of origin of visitors Number of Visitors

Average length

of stay (nights)

Italy

51 737

42
China 308 452 48
United States of America 456 084 24
United Kingdom 734 244 34
Canada 109 843 42
New Zealand 1 075 0797 14

Source: Department of Education and Communities (2012)

Table 2 North American and European tourists to Australia (2006)

Tourists to Australia (2006)

Region of origin

Number of visitors

Europe

785 981

North America

565 927

Adapted from: Department of Education and Communities (2012)

Reference list

Author Year, ‘Title of table in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’, Title of page in italics and minimal capitalisation, type of source e.g. table or figure, viewed day month year, URL

Department of Education and Communities 2012, ‘Tourists to Australia 2006’, Naplan 2012 teaching strategies, table, viewed 2 December 2013,http://www.schools.nsw.edu.au/ learning/7- 12assessments/naplan/teachstrategies/yr2012/index.php?id=numeracy /nn_data/nn_data_s3a_12

Online images and diagrams

Figures from sources, including diagrams, graphs, sketches, photographs and maps, require a citation both in text and in the reference list.

In-text reference

Figure number and title should be in a caption directly under the image. Captions should be very simple and descriptive and be followed by an in-text citation. Include the page number for figures reproduced from the original.

 

Figure 1 Khafre's funerary complex

Source: Ancient Egypt Research Associates (2014, p. 1)

Figure 2 Agricultural water use

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013, n.p.)

Reference list

Author Year, ‘Title of figure in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’, Title of source in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. photograph, viewed day month year, URL

Ancient Egypt Research Associates 2014, ‘Khafre's funerary complex’, Sphinx project, diagram, viewed 25 November 2011, http://www.aeraweb.org/projects/sphinx/

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2013, ‘Agricultural water use’, 4618.0 Water use on Australian farms, 2011-12, figure, viewed 25 November 2013, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4618.0main+features32011-12

ABS catalogue number is in italics as part of the title.

Online transcripts

Online transcripts are not academic sources but may be analysed as case studies (check with your tutor).

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Murphy (2016) reports that there is a move to ban commercial net fishing near major centres. Murphy (2016, n.p.) reports that business interests ‘want commercial net fishing removed’.

There is a move to ban commercial net fishing near major centres (Murphy 2016).

Business interests ‘want commercial net fishing removed’ (Murphy 2016, n.p.).

Reference list

Author or Organisation Year, Title of program in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. transcript, Broadcaster Name, day month of broadcast, viewed day month year, URL

Murphy, S 2016, Landline: recreational fishing sector pushes for ban on commercial net fishing near major centres, transcript, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 19 November, viewed 22 November 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-11-18/recreational-fishing-sector-pushes-net-fishing-ban-major-centres/8033432

YouTube and online videos

YouTube and video-sharing websites are not academic sources but may be analysed as case studies (check with your tutor).

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

University of Derby (2012) recognises that new students may have difficulty with referencing. University of Derby (2012, sec. 39.) lists, ‘two stages to highlighting other people’s work in your own’.

New students may have difficulty with referencing (University of Derby 2012).

 ‘There are two stages to highlighting other people’s work in your own’ (University of Derby 2012, sec. 39).

For direct quotes: Pinpoint the quote in hr. (hours), min. (minutes) and/or sec. (seconds) with the number after the abbreviation (e.g. hr. 1, min. 32, sec. 44).

Reference list

Author Year, Title in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. online video, viewed day month year, URL

University of Derby 2012, A guide to Harvard referencing, online video, viewed 21 November 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDgqqPvMn0U

Podcasts

Podcasts are not academic sources but may be analysed as case studies (check with your tutor).

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

To refer to speaker:

Jill Kitson (Lingua Franca 2007) interviewed the program founders.

To refer to speaker:

Jill Kitson (Lingua Franca 2007, min. 43) reported that ‘the program has been applauded’.

To refer to program:

Lingua Franca (2007) reported that a new language program in Budapest was very successful.

To refer to program:

 ‘The program has been applauded’ (Lingua Franca 2007, min. 43).

For direct quotes: Pinpoint the quote in hr. (hours), min. (minutes) and/or sec. (seconds) with the number after the abbreviation (e.g. hr. 1, min. 32, sec. 44 ).

Reference list

Author if known or Title in italics Year, format e.g. podcast radio program, Publisher or Broadcaster in Maximal Capitalisation and no italics, day month podcast, viewed day month year, URL

Lingua Franca 2007, podcast radio program, ABC Radio National, 28 April, viewed 25 May 2007, http://abc.net.au/rn/podcast/feeds/lin.xml

Wikis
In-text reference

Wikis are not academic sources but may be analysed as case studies (check with your tutor). Retain the format of author names as posted in the source. If there is no designated author, cite the website owner/sponsor in place of the author. If no date is given in the source, use n.d. and if no page numbers are given in the source, use n.p. as appropriate.

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

In ‘Cretaceous’ (2013), details are carefully organised. According to WikiLeaks (2016, n.p.), there is pressure to ‘“invite” Western forces’.
Information is framed for a general audience (‘Cretaceous’ 2013).

There is pressure to ‘“invite” Western forces’ (WikiLeaks 2016, n.p.).

No author, so title cited.

Use double quotation marks for quote within quote.

Reference list

Author if known or ‘Title in single quotation marks, no italics’ Year, Title in italics, format e.g. wiki article, viewed day month year, URL

‘Cretaceous’ 2013, Wikipedia, wiki article, 19 November, viewed 25 November 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous

WikiLeaks 2016, EUNAVFOR MED - Operation SOPHIA - Six Monthly Report: June, 22nd to December, 31st 2015, wiki article, viewed 30 November 2016, https://wikileaks.org/eu-military-refugees/

Social media

Social media are not academic sources but may be analysed as case studies (check with your tutor). Retain the format of author names as posted in the source. If there is no designated author, cite the website owner/sponsor in place of the author. If no date is given in the source, use n.d. and if no page numbers are given in the source, use n.p. or para. (paragraph number) as appropriate.

In-text reference

Paraphrase

Direct Quote

Pierce (2013) discusses the fiftieth anniversary of the assassination of John F Kennedy.

The government (Gillard 2011, para. 1) used online forums to declare that it was ‘prepared to provide over $2 billion’.

The ‘celebration’ of the fiftieth anniversary of John F Kennedy’s assassination is a bit ‘hinky’ (Pierce 2013).

‘A New Kyoto will be announced before the old one expires’ (JohnJones4 2011, n.p.).

Author Year, ‘Title of post (if available) in single quotation marks, no italics and minimal capitalisation’, Title of site in italics and minimal capitalisation, format e.g. status update or blogpost, day month posted, viewed day month year, URL

Reference list

Gillard, J 2011, ‘Fair pay, equal pay’, Facebook, status update, 10 November, viewed 25 November 2013, https://www.facebook.com/juliagillard/posts/263639040354656

JohnJones4 2011, ‘Will the Kyoto Protocol survive the Durban climate talks?’ The Guardian, online comment, 24 October, viewed 25 November 2013, http://discussion.theguardian.com/ comment-permalink/12982707

Pierce, CP 2013, ‘Out on the weekend’, The Politics Blog, blog post, November 22, viewed 25 November 2013, http://www.esquire.com/blogs/politics/

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