Sport and Outdoor Recreation | UniSC | University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia

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Sport and Outdoor Recreation

The Sport and Outdoor Recreation theme represents an emerging strength and an area where the Centre is quickly becoming recognised for novel and innovative research designed to enhance performance and safety in sport and outdoor recreation systems.

This themes research involves the application of human factors and sociotechnical systems theory, methods, and principles to understand and optimise sports systems (eg. strengthen controls around corruption and doping) and to improve injury reporting, analysis, and prevention. The Centre currently has a strategic partnership with the Sunshine Coast Lightning Netball team and are currently undertaking research to improve organisational and on-court team performance.

Current Projects

Key Researchers


  • Karl Dodd
  • Isaiah Elstak


Recent Publications


McLean,S. Desmond.D. Salmon,P. An analysis of the sports performance enhancing substances available on the darknet. Science Direct

Mclean, S., Soloman, C., Gorman, A., Salmon, P. M. (In Press ) Do inter-continental playing styles exist? Using social network analysis to compare goals from the 2016 EURO and COPA football tournaments knockout stages. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. Accepted for publication 31st January.

Carden, T., Goode, N., Salmon, P. M. (In Press).Not as simple as it looks: led outdoor activities are complex sociotechnical systems Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science.

McLean,S. Read,G. Thompson,J. Hancock,P,A. Salmon,P. (2021) Who is in control? Managerial artificial general intelligence (MAGI) for Football. Soccer and Society. ,

McLean, S., Goode, N., Coventon, L., Finch, C., Clacy, A. Salmon, P. M. (2021). Applying a systems thinking lens to injury causation in the outdoors: Evidence collected during 3 years of the Understanding and Preventing Led Outdoor Accidents Data System Injury Prevention, 27:48-54.

McLean, S. Read,G. Ramsay, K. Hogarth,L. Kean, B. Designing success: Applying cognitive work analysis to optimise a para sport system. Applied Ergonomics.

McLean, S., Rath, D., Lethlean, S., Hornsby, M., Gallagher, J., Anderson, D., Salmon, P. M. (2021). With crisis comes opportunity: Redesigning elite sports clubs for life after a global pandemic. Frontiers, 20 January 2021, 

McLean, S., Salmon, P. M., Gorman, A., Solomon, C., Dodd, K. (2021). The communication and passing contributions of playing positions in a professional football team. Human Movement.

McLean,S. Kerherv'e H. Stevens,N. Salmon,P. (2021) A Systems Analysis Critique of Sport-Science Research. Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence.

Naughton,M. McLean,S. Scott,T. Weaving,D. Solomon,C. (2021) Quantifying Fatigue in the Rugby Codes: The Interplay Between Collision Characteristics and Neuromuscular Performance, Biochemical Measures, and Self-Reported Assessments of Fatigue. Frontiers in Physiology.10.3389

Hulme, A., McLean, S., Dallat, C. Walker, G. H., Waterson, P., Stanton, N. A., Salmon, P. M. (2021). Systems thinking-based risk assessment methods applied to sports performance: A comparison of STPA, EAST-BL, and Net-HARMS in the context of elite women's road cycling. Applied Ergonomics, 91, 103297 

Salmon,P. Naughton, M. Hulme,A. McLean,S. (2021) Bicycle crash contributory factors: A systematic review. Safety Science.

McLean,S. Coventon,L. Finch,C. Dallat,C. Carden,T. Salmon,P. Evaluation of a systems ergonomics-based incident reporting system. Applied Ergonomics.

L, Paul. M, Naughton. B, Jones, D, Davidow. A, Patel. M, Lambert. S, Hendricks. Quantifying Collision Frequency and Intensity in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens: A Systematic Review. 2022, Sports Medicine 8:12.

Scott McLean, Lauren Coventon, Caroline F. Finch & Paul M. Salmon. Incident reporting in the outdoors: a systemsbased analysis of injury, illness, and psychosocial incidents in led outdoor activities in Australia. Ergonomics. DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2022.2041733

L. Fortington, N. Goode, C. Finch, P. Salmon. Heat and sun related medical concerns in Australian led outdoor activities: a three-year prospective study. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education.

Koorts,H. Salmon,P. Swain,C. Cassar, S. Strickland,D. Salmon,J. A systems thinking approach to understanding youth active recreation. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity.

Carden, T., Goode, N., Salmon, P. M. (In Press). Simply Complex. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science.

Mclean, S., Soloman, C., Gorman, A., Salmon, P. M. (In Press). Continental Drift? Using Social Network Analysis to Compare Goals from the 2016 EURO and COPA Football Tournaments. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. Accepted for publication 31st January 2017

Hulme, A. Salmon, P.M, Nielsen, R.O, Read, G. J. M, Finch, C.F. (In Press). Closing Pandora’s Box: Adapting a systems ergonomics methodology for better understanding the ecological complexity underpinning the development and prevention of running-related injury. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science.

Carden, T., Read, G., Goode, N., Salmon, P. M. (In Press). Sociotechnical systems as a framework for regulatory system design and evaluation: using work domain analysis to examine a new regulatory system. Applied Ergonomics, Accepted for publication December 2016.

Clacy, A., Goode, N., Sharman, A., Lovell, G., Salmon, P. M. (In press). A knock to the system: a new sociotechnical systems approach to sport-related concussion. Journal of Sports Sciences, accepted for publication 29th November 2016

Neville, T., Salmon, P. M., Read, G. J. M. (2017). Analysis of In-Game Communication as an Indicator of Recognition Primed Decision Making in Elite Australian Rules Football Umpires. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 11:1, 81-96

Mclean, S., Soloman, C., Gorman, A., Salmon, P. M. (2017). What’s in a game? A systems approach to enhancing performance analysis in football. Plos One, 1-15.

Neville, T. J., Salmon, P. M., Read, G. J. M., Kalloniatis, A., C. (2017). Play on or call a foul: testing and extending distributed situation awareness theory through sports officiating. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 17:1, 80-103.

Salmon, P. M., Goode, N., Taylor, N., Dallat, C., Finch, C., Lenne, M. G. (2017). Rasmussen’s legacy in the great outdoors: a new incident reporting and learning system for led outdoor activities. Applied Ergonomics, 59:B, 637-648


For inquiries regarding the Sport and Outdoor Recreation theme please contact Professor Paul Salmon (07) 5456 5893,